Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions related to the definition of and use of terminology in the context of Artificial Intelligence

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
90
votes
10answers
14k views

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and machine learning?

These two terms seem to be related, especially in their application in computer science and software engineering. Is one a subset of another? Is one a tool used to build a system for the other? ...
29
votes
5answers
15k views

What is the purpose of an activation function in neural networks?

It is said that activation functions in neural networks help introduce non-linearity. What does this mean? What does non-linearity mean in this context? How does the introduction of this non-...
8
votes
1answer
10k views

What is the fringe in the context of search algorithms?

What is the fringe in the context of search algorithms?
1
vote
2answers
288 views

What is machine learning?

What is the definition of machine learning? What are the advantages of machine learning?
1
vote
1answer
2k views

What is an agent in Artificial Intelligence?

While studying artificial intelligence, I have often encountered the term "agent" (often autonomous, intelligent). For instance, in fields such as Reinforcement Learning, Multi-Agent Systems, Game ...
23
votes
6answers
2k views

What is artificial intelligence?

What is the definition of artificial intelligence?
17
votes
1answer
5k views

What is the Bellman operator in reinforcement learning?

In mathematics, the word operator can refer to several distinct but related concepts. An operator can be defined as a function between two vector spaces, it can be defined as a function where the ...
5
votes
3answers
909 views

What is the actual learning algorithm: back-propagation or gradient descent?

What is the actual learning algorithm: back-propagation or gradient descent (or, in general, the optimization algorithm)? I am reading through chapter 8 of Parallel Distributed Processing hand book ...
3
votes
1answer
209 views

Is there any difference between a control and an action in reinforcement learning?

There are reinforcement learning papers (e.g. Metacontrol for Adaptive Imagination-Based Optimization) that use (apparently, interchangeably) the term control or action to refer to the effect of the ...
30
votes
5answers
56k views

What is the difference between a convolutional neural network and a regular neural network?

I've seen these terms thrown around this site a lot, specifically in the tags convolutional-neural-networks and neural-networks. I know that a neural network is a system based loosely on the human ...
45
votes
6answers
2k views

What is fuzzy logic?

I'm new to A.I. and I'd like to know in simple words, what is the fuzzy logic concept? How does it help, and when is it used?
43
votes
3answers
23k views

What is the difference between strong-AI and weak-AI?

I've heard the terms strong-AI and weak-AI used. Are these well defined terms or subjective ones? How are they generally defined?
28
votes
2answers
1k views

How is a deep neural network different from other neural networks?

How is a neural network having the "deep" adjective actually distinguished from other similar networks?
7
votes
2answers
472 views

Is reinforcement learning using shallow neural networks still deep reinforcement learning?

Often times I see the term deep reinforcement learning to refer to RL algorithms that use neural networks, regardless of whether or not the networks are deep. For example, PPO is often considered a ...
6
votes
6answers
12k views

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and robots?

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and robots?
7
votes
3answers
1k views

What is the difference between hypothesis space and representational capacity?

I am reading Goodfellow et al Deeplearning Book. I found it difficult to understand the difference between the definition of the hypothesis space and representation capacity of a model. In Chapter 5,...
5
votes
5answers
574 views

Is transistor the first artificial intelligence?

Artificial Intelligence is any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal. I got this definition from Wikipedia that cited "Russell and ...
4
votes
1answer
146 views

What is the relation between a policy which is the solution to a MDP and a policy like $\epsilon$-greedy?

In the context of reinforcement learning, a policy, $\pi$, is often defined as a function from the space of states, $\mathcal{S}$, to the space of actions, $\mathcal{A}$, that is, $\pi : \mathcal{S} \...
11
votes
3answers
251 views

What is a deep neural network? [duplicate]

What is the definition of a deep neural network? Why are they so popular or important?
3
votes
2answers
510 views

What is a probability distribution in machine learning?

If we were learning or working in the machine learning field, then we frequently come across the term "probability distribution". I know what probability, conditional probability, and ...
18
votes
3answers
18k views

What is the concept of Tensorflow Bottlenecks?

What is the concept and how does one calculate Bottleneck values? How do these values help image classification? Please explain in simple words.
18
votes
4answers
5k views

What is the difference between latent and embedding spaces?

In general, the word "latent" means "hidden" and "to embed" means "to incorporate". In machine learning, the expressions "hidden (or latent) space" ...
6
votes
1answer
3k views

What is the definition of each of these neural network cell types?

I found this nice-ish-looking diagram, but it has a wholly inadequate descriptions for each of the cell types, aside from including names. What is the definition/description of each of these cell ...
9
votes
2answers
5k views

What is the difference between reinforcement learning and optimal control?

Coming from a process (optimal) control background, I have begun studying the field of deep reinforcement learning. Sutton & Barto (2015) state that particularly important (to the writing of the ...
13
votes
4answers
2k views

What does “stationary” mean in the context of reinforcement learning?

I think I've seen the expressions "stationary data", "stationary dynamics" and "stationary policy", among others, in the context of reinforcement learning. What does it mean? I think stationary policy ...
13
votes
3answers
7k views

What is the difference between actor-critic and advantage actor-critic?

I'm struggling to understand the difference between actor-critic and advantage actor-critic. At least, I know they are different from asynchronous advantage actor-critic (A3C), as A3C adds an ...
12
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the difference between active learning and online learning?

The definitions for these two appear to be very similar, and frankly, I've been only using the term "active learning" the past couple of years. What is the actual difference between the two? ...
11
votes
1answer
3k views

Who first coined the term Artificial Intelligence?

Who first coined the term Artificial Intelligence? Is there a published research paper that first used that term?
9
votes
1answer
5k views

What is the difference between an observation and a state in reinforcement learning?

I'm studying reinforcement learning. It seems that "state" and "observation" mean exactly the same thing. They both capture the current state of the game. Is there a difference between the two terms?...
11
votes
5answers
6k views

Is a genetic algorithm an example of artificial intelligence?

Since human intelligence presumably is a function of a natural genetic algorithm in nature, is using a genetic algorithm in a computer an example of artificial intelligence? If not, how do they differ?...
8
votes
3answers
434 views

What's the term for death by dissolving in AI?

What's the term (if such exists) for merging with AI (e.g. via neural lace) and becoming so diluted (e.g. 1:10000) that it effectively results in a death of the original self? It's not quite "digital ...
4
votes
2answers
3k views

What is feature embedding in the context of convolutional neural networks?

What are feature embeddings in the context of convolutional neural networks? Is it related to bottleneck features or feature vectors?
3
votes
1answer
166 views

What is the difference between image processing and computer vision?

What is the difference between image processing and computer vision? They are apparently both used in artificial intelligence.
2
votes
1answer
83 views

What are preferences and preference functions in multi-objective reinforcement learning?

In RL (reinforcement learning) or MARL (multi-agent reinforcement learning), we have the usual tuple: (state, action, transition_probabilities, reward, next_state) ...
2
votes
3answers
236 views

What is the name of an AI whose primary goal is to create a better AI?

A general AI x creates another AI y which is better than x. y creates an AI better than itself. And so on, with each generation's primary goal to create a better AI. Is there a name for this. By ...
10
votes
2answers
4k views

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and computational intelligence?

Having analyzed and reviewed a certain amount of articles and questions, apparently, the expression computational intelligence (CI) is not used consistently and it is still unclear the relationship ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

What algorithms are considered reinforcement learning algorithms?

What are the areas that belong to the Reinforcement Learning? TD(0), Q-Learning and SARSA are all temporal-difference algorithms, which belong to the reinforcement learning area, but is there more to ...
6
votes
1answer
10k views

What is the difference between an agent function and an agent program?

In section 2.4 (p. 46) of the book Artificial Intelligence: A modern approach (3rd edition), Russell and Norvig write The job of AI is to design an agent program that implements the agent function — ...
4
votes
2answers
234 views

What is the meaning of “exploration” in reinforcement and supervised learning?

While exploration is an integral part of reinforcement learning (RL), it does not pertain to supervised learning (SL) since the latter is already provided with the data set from the start. That said, ...
4
votes
5answers
224 views

What is an artificial neural network?

What is an artificial neural network in artificial intelligence? It is apparently used to find patterns in data and it is loosely inspired by human neural networks.
3
votes
1answer
106 views

Are there any DeepQA-based computers other than Watson?

My understanding is that Watson is the name of the computer, and DeepQA is the name of the software or technology. They are both correlated. Are there any computers/technologies other than Watson ...
3
votes
1answer
372 views

What are “proxy data sets” in machine learning?

The paper Assessment of Deep Generative Models for High-Resolution Synthetic Retinal Image Generation of Age-Related Macular Degeneration uses the term "proxy data sets" in this way To develop DL ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

What is the AI discipline where an algorithm learns from an initial training set, but then refines its learning as it uses that training?

Imagine a system that is trained to manipulate dampers to manage air flow. The training data includes damper state and flow characteristics through a complex system of ducts. The system is then given ...
1
vote
1answer
117 views

What is teacher forcing?

In the paper Neural Programmer-Interpreters, the authors use the teacher forcing technique, but what exactly is it?
1
vote
2answers
271 views

What is the difference between a learning algorithm and a hypothesis?

What's the distinction between a learning algorithm $A$ and a hypothesis $f$? I'm looking for a few concrete examples, if possible. For example, would the decision tree and random forest be considered ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

What is a “codon” in grammatical evolution?

The term codon is used in the context of grammatical evolution (GE), sometimes, without being explicitly defined. For example, it is used in this paper, which introduces and describes PonyGE 2, a ...