Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions related to the definition of and use of terminology in the context of Artificial Intelligence

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74
votes
17answers
12k views

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and machine learning?

These two terms seem to be related, especially in their application in computer science and software engineering. Is one a subset of another? Is one a tool used to build a system for the other? ...
39
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3answers
21k views

What is the difference between strong-AI and weak-AI?

I've heard the terms strong-AI and weak-AI used. Are these well defined terms or subjective ones? How are they generally defined?
37
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5answers
2k views

What is fuzzy logic?

I'm new to A.I. and I'd like to know in simple words, what is the fuzzy logic concept? How does it help, and when is it used?
24
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2answers
811 views

How is a deep neural network different from other neural networks?

How is a neural network having the "deep" adjective actually distinguished from other similar networks?
20
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11answers
1k views

What is artificial intelligence?

What is the definition of artificial intelligence?
16
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3answers
27k views

What is the difference between a Convolutional Neural Network and a regular Neural Network?

I've seen these terms thrown around this site a lot, specifically in the tags convolutional-neural-networks and neural-networks. I know that a Neural Network is a system based loosely on the human ...
13
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7answers
760 views

What are good alternatives to the expression “Artificial Intelligence”?

I read a really interesting article titled "Stop Calling it Artificial Intelligence" that made a compelling critique of the name "Artificial Intelligence". The word intelligence is so broad that it's ...
11
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2answers
8k views

What are bottleneck features?

In the blog post Building powerful image classification models using very little data, bottleneck features are mentioned. What are the bottleneck features? Do they change with the architecture that is ...
11
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1answer
562 views

Are Cellular Neural Networks one type of Neural Networks?

I am researching Cellular Neural Networks and have already read Chua's two articles (1988). In cellular neural networks, a cell is only in relation with its neighbors. So its is easy to use it for ...
11
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2answers
1k views

What are ontologies in AI?

What exactly are ontologies in AI? How should I write them and why are they important?
10
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2answers
2k views

Who first coined the term Artificial Intelligence?

Who first coined the term Artificial Intelligence? Is there a published research paper that first used that term?
10
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5answers
4k views

Is a genetic algorithm an example of artificial intelligence?

Since human intelligence presumably is a function of a natural genetic algorithm in nature, is using a genetic algorithm in a computer an example of artificial intelligence? If not, how do they differ?...
9
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3answers
9k views

What is the concept of Tensorflow Bottlenecks?

What is the concept and how does one calculate Bottleneck values? How do these values help image classification? Please explain in simple words.
8
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3answers
406 views

What is “backprop”?

What does "backprop" mean? I've Googled it, but it's showing backpropagation. Is the "backprop" term basically the same as "backpropagation" or does it have a different meaning?
8
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3answers
171 views

What is a deep neural network?

What is the definition of a deep neural network? Why are they so popular or important?
8
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1answer
1k views

What is the Bellman operator in reinforcement learning?

In mathematics, the word operator can refer to several distinct but related concepts. An operator can be defined as a function between two vector spaces, it can be defined as function where the domain ...
8
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3answers
390 views

What's the term for death by dissolving in AI?

What's the term (if such exists) for merging with AI (e.g. via neural lace) and becoming so diluted (e.g. 1:10000) that it effectively results in a death of the original self? It's not quite "digital ...
8
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2answers
2k views

What is the difference between a receptive field and a feature map?

In a CNN, the receptive field is the portion of the image used to compute the filter's output. But one filter's output (which is also called a "feature map") is the next filter's input. What's the ...
7
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2answers
188 views

What is the machine learning approach based on human learning?

I once came across a neural network being trained without back-propagation or genetic algorithms (or using any kind of data sets). It was based on how the human brain learns and adjusts its ...
7
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2answers
4k views

What is the difference between Actor-Critic and Advantage Actor-Critic?

I'm struggling to understand the difference between Actor-Critic and Advantage Actor-Critic. At least I know they are different from Asynchronous Advantage Actor-Critic (A3C), as A3C adds ...
7
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3answers
6k views

What is the difference between tree search and graph search?

I have read various answers to this question at different places, but I am still missing something. What I have understood is that a Graph search holds a closed list, with all expanded nodes, so ...
7
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4answers
97 views

What does learning mean?

Can someone explain what is the process of learning? What does it mean to learn something?
7
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2answers
418 views

What does “stationary” mean in the context of reinforcement learning?

I think I've seen the expressions "stationary data", "stationary dynamics" and "stationary policy", among others, in the context of reinforcement learning. What does it mean? I think stationary policy ...
7
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3answers
643 views

What do you call a machine learning system that keeps on learning?

As I understand it from this video lecture, there are three types of deep learning: Supervised Unsupervised Reinforcement All these can serve to train a neural network either only prior to its ...
7
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2answers
239 views

In what ways is the term “topology” applied to Artificial Intelligence?

I have a only a general understanding of General Topology, and want to understand the scope of the term "topology" in relation to the field of Artificial Intelligence. In what ways are topological ...
7
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3answers
338 views

What is meant by “known” in “A knowledge-base exhibits complete knowledge iff for every P (within its vocabulary) P or ~P is known”

I have a question as to what it means for a knowledge-base to be consistent and complete. I've been looking into non-monotonic logic and different formalisms for it from the book "knowledge ...
7
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3answers
670 views

What is a learning agent?

What is a learning agent, and how does it work? What are examples of learning agents (e.g., in the field of robotics)?
6
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6answers
10k views

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and robots?

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and robots?
6
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1answer
3k views

What is the difference between an observation and a state in reinforcement learning?

I'm studying reinforcement learning. It seems that "state" and "observation" mean exactly the same thing. They both capture the current state of the game. Is there a difference between the two terms?...
6
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1answer
706 views

Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence

Having analysed,reviewed quite a number of user questions inline with answers concerning AI,sometimes I understand nor take note that AI community does not try much to avoid the term computational ...
6
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2answers
2k views

What is the difference between assisted and unassisted learning in relation to AI?

Is this related to supervised and unsupervised machine learning? Is it related to AI assisted human learning, and what is the distinction? Also, why is assisted machine learning seen as an ...
6
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1answer
2k views

What is the difference between Memetic Algorithms and Genetic Algorithms?

Can someone please explain the difference between Memetic Algorithms and Genetic Algorithms? Is an indivudal's lifetime learning part of memetic algorithms?
6
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2answers
362 views

What exactly are the differences between semantic and lexical-semantic networks?

What exactly are the differences between semantic and lexical-semantic networks?
5
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2answers
957 views

What algorithms are considered reinforcement learning algorithms?

What are the areas that belong to the Reinforcement Learning? TD(0), Q-Learning and SARSA are all temporal-difference algorithms, which belong to the reinforcement learning area, but is there more to ...
5
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1answer
1k views

What are the state space and the state transition function in AI?

I'm studying for my AI final exam, and I'm stuck in the state space representation. I understand initial and goal states, but what I don't understand is the state space and state transition function. ...
5
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3answers
155 views

Does any Math/Algos actually mimic human intelligence?

I've been reading about AI/Deep Learning, etc. to understand robots (i.e. Elon Musk warning). But I must be missing something... Can the entire field be summed-up in this one sentence? "Neural ...
5
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2answers
401 views

What does the term “closed expression” mean?

In the field of logic systems there is a property for reasoning algorithms called incompleteness or incompletion. In this context the phrase "any closed expression that is not derivable inside the ...
5
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2answers
269 views

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and cognitive science?

Sometimes I understand that people doing cognitive science try to avoid the term artificial intelligence. The feeling I get is that there is a need to put some distance to the GOFAI. Another ...
5
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2answers
754 views

What is the difference between latent and embedding spaces?

In general, the word "latent" means "hidden" and "to embed" means "to incorporate". In machine learning, the expressions "hidden (or latent) space" and "embedding space" occur in several contexts. ...
5
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1answer
123 views

What is a weighted average in a non-stationary k-armed bandit problem?

In the book Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction (page 25), by Richard S. Sutton and Andrew G. Barto, there is a discussion of the k-armed bandit problem, where the expected reward from the bandits ...
4
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5answers
398 views

Is transistor the first artificial intelligence?

Artificial Intelligence is any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal. I got this definition from Wikipedia that cited "Russell and ...
4
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2answers
920 views

Is AI entirely a part of Computer Science?

Both AI and Computer Science are Sciences, as I understood from Wikipedia, Computer Science is everything that has any relation to computers. And AI is commonly defined as Study of machines that ...
4
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2answers
286 views

What are different approaches used in Machine Learning?

There seem to be so many sub-fields, so I'm interested in getting a better understanding of the approaches. I'm looking for information on a single framework per answer, in order to allow for ...
4
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4answers
379 views

What is the actual learning algorithm: back-propagation or gradient descent?

What is the actual learning algorithm: back-propagation or gradient descent (or, in general, the optimization algorithm)? I am reading through chapter 8 of Parallel Distributed Processing hand book ...
4
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2answers
1k views

What is a “trajectory” in reinforcement learning?

I'm now learning about reinforcement learning, but I just found the word "trajectory" in this answer. However, I'm not sure what it means. I read a few books on the Reinforcement Learning but none of ...
4
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1answer
4k views

What is the fringe in the context of search algorithms?

What is the fringe in the context of search algorithms?
4
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4answers
257 views

What other kind of AIs exist apart from goal-driven?

Goal-driven AIs is the only kind of AI I am aware of. However, Marcus Hutter claims the following Most, if not all known facets of intelligence can be formulated as goal driven or, more generally, ...
4
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2answers
103 views

Is reinforcement learning using shallow neural networks still deep reinforcement learning?

Often times I see the term deep reinforcement learning to refer to RL algorithms that use neural networks, regardless of whether or not the networks are deep. For example, PPO (https://arxiv.org/pdf/...
4
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2answers
7k views

What is the difference between an agent function and an agent program?

What is the difference between an agent function and an agent program (with respect to the percept sequence)? In the book "Artificial Intelligence: A modern approach", The agent function, ...
4
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2answers
387 views

What is the difference between abstract, autonomous and virtual intelligent agents?

On Wikipedia, we can read about different type of intelligent agents: abstract intelligent agents (AIA), autonomous intelligent agents, virtual intelligent agent (IVA), which I've found on other ...