Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions related to the definition of and use of terminology in the context of Artificial Intelligence

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Terminology for the use of datasets as data points

As computers are getting bigger better and faster, the concept of what constitutes a single datum is changing. For example, in the world of pen-and-paper, we might take readings of temperature over ...
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2answers
876 views

What is difference between edge computing and federated learning?

I recently read about federated learning introduced by Google, but it seems to be like edge computing. What is the difference between edge computing and federated learning?
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What is the correct name for state explosion from sensor discretization?

The position of a robot on a map contains of an x/y value, for example $position(x=100.23,y=400.78)$. The internal representation of the variable is a 32bit float which is equal to 4 byte in the RAM ...
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67 views

What is “Word Sense Disambiguation”?

I recently came across this article which cites a paper which apparently won outstanding paper in ACL 2019. The theme is that it solved a longstanding problem called Word Sense Disambiguation. What ...
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1answer
906 views

What is the meaning of “stationarity of statistics” and “locality of pixel dependencies”?

I'm reading the ImageNet Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks paper by Krizhevsky et al, and came across these lines in the Intro paragraph: Their (convolutional neural networks') ...
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1answer
64 views

Can neural networks modify their own weights without back-propagation and gradient descent?

Can neural networks modify their own weights without back-propagation and gradient descent?
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1answer
186 views

What is the difference between image processing and computer vision?

What is the difference between image processing and computer vision? They are apparently both used in artificial intelligence.
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1answer
228 views

Is there any difference between a control and an action in reinforcement learning?

There are reinforcement learning papers (e.g. Metacontrol for Adaptive Imagination-Based Optimization) that use (apparently, interchangeably) the term control or action to refer to the effect of the ...
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0answers
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How does Friend-or-Foe Q-learning intuitively work?

I read about Q-Learning and was reading about multi-agent environments. I tried to read the paper Friend-or-Foe Q-learning, but could not understand anything, except for a very vague idea. What does ...
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What are the differences between Deepfakes, FaceSwap and Face2Face?

I've compared videos manipulated with three different automated face manipulation methods: Deepfakes, Face2Face, and FaceSwap. Surprisingly, I found the output videos quite different: Deepfakes and ...
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1answer
56 views

What is “dense” in DensePose?

I've recently come across an amazing work for human pose estimation: DensePose: Dense Human Pose Estimation In The Wild by Facebook. In this work, they have tackled the task of dense human pose ...
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What are options in reinforcement learning?

According to a lecture about Reinforcement Learning, the concept of options allows searching the state space of an agent much faster. The lecture came from Nptel [1] (National Program on Technology ...
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1answer
107 views

Are there any DeepQA-based computers other than Watson?

My understanding is that Watson is the name of the computer, and DeepQA is the name of the software or technology. They are both correlated. Are there any computers/technologies other than Watson ...
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Describing the order of a tensor

When describing tensors of higher order I feel like there is an overloading of the term dimension as it may be used to describe the order of the tensor but also the dimensionality of the... "orders"? ...
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What is the difference between Knowledge Representation and Automated Reasoning?

Knowledge Representation and Automated Reasoning are two AI subfields which seem to have something to do with reasoning. However, I can't find any information online about their relationship. Are ...
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What are good alternatives to the expression “Artificial Intelligence”?

I read a really interesting article titled "Stop Calling it Artificial Intelligence" that made a compelling critique of the name "Artificial Intelligence". The word intelligence is so broad that it's ...
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1answer
75 views

What does “probabilistically” mean?

I'm reading the A. E. Eiben and J. E. Smith book Introduction to Evolutionary Computing (Springer 2003). On section 3.5 Recombination, page 47, the second paragraph said: Recombination operators ...
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1answer
2k views

What is an agent in Artificial Intelligence?

While studying artificial intelligence, I have often encountered the term "agent" (often autonomous, intelligent). For instance, in fields such as Reinforcement Learning, Multi-Agent Systems, Game ...
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5k views

What is a learning agent?

What is a learning agent, and how does it work? What are examples of learning agents (e.g., in the field of robotics)?
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Is a genetic algorithm an example of artificial intelligence?

Since human intelligence presumably is a function of a natural genetic algorithm in nature, is using a genetic algorithm in a computer an example of artificial intelligence? If not, how do they differ?...
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What is the difference between strong-AI and weak-AI?

I've heard the terms strong-AI and weak-AI used. Are these well defined terms or subjective ones? How are they generally defined?
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2answers
1k views

Is REINFORCE the same as 'vanilla policy gradient'?

I don't know what people mean by 'vanilla policy gradient', but what comes to mind is REINFORCE, which is the simplest policy gradient algorithm I can think of. Is this an accurate statement? By ...
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2answers
137 views

What does learning mean?

Can someone explain what is the process of learning? What does it mean to learn something?
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1answer
50 views

What is the prediction accuracy?

In simple words, what is the prediction accuracy? What is it based on? How does it help? When is it used?
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2answers
5k views

Why is it called Latent Vector?

I just learned about GAN and I'm a little bit confused about the naming of Latent Vector. First, In my understanding, a definition of a latent variable is a random variable that can't be measured ...
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2answers
435 views

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and cognitive science?

Sometimes I understand that people doing cognitive science try to avoid the term artificial intelligence. The feeling I get is that there is a need to put some distance to the GOFAI. Another ...
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1answer
45 views

Should I call the error “validation error” or “test error” during cross validation?

I'm using 10-fold cross validation on all models. Here you can see both plots: Since I am using k-fold cross validation, is it okay to name it "validation error vs training error" or "test error vs ...
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1answer
784 views

What is the difference between policy and action in reinforcement learning?

I'm confused with the two terminology - action and policy - in Reinforcement Learning. As far as I know, the action is: It is what the agent makes in a given state. However, the book I'm reading ...
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1answer
737 views

Are Cellular Neural Networks one type of Neural Networks?

I am researching Cellular Neural Networks and have already read Chua's two articles (1988). In cellular neural networks, a cell is only in relation with its neighbors. So its is easy to use it for ...
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1answer
897 views

What is a state in a recurrent neural network?

I am Reading "Supervised Sequence Labelling with Recurrent Neural Networks" written by Alex Graves to try to understand LSTM networks and I am a bit confused about the equations. Specifically, what I ...
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1answer
107 views

Is there a Hebb neural network?

Is there a Hebb neural network? What kind of functions can it implement? Or, are there multiple "Hebb networks", that is, neural networks that learn in a Hebbian fashion?
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What is the difference between on and off-policy deterministic actor-critic?

In the paper Deterministic Policy Gradient Algorithms, I am really confused about chapter 4.1 and 4.2 which is "On and off-policy Deterministic Actor-Critic". I don't know what's the difference ...
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0answers
109 views

What are the differences between learning by analogy, inductive learning and explanation based learning?

I have heard of the concepts of learning by analogy (which is quite self-explanatory), inductive learning and explanation-based learning. I tried to learn about inductive learning and explanation-...
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1answer
958 views

What is the difference between an episode, a trajectory and a rollout?

I often see the terms episode, trajectory and rollout to refer to basically the same thing, a list of (state, action, rewards). Are there any concrete differences between the terms or can they be used ...
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440 views

What's the term for death by dissolving in AI?

What's the term (if such exists) for merging with AI (e.g. via neural lace) and becoming so diluted (e.g. 1:10000) that it effectively results in a death of the original self? It's not quite "digital ...
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1answer
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Is the definition of machine learning by Mitchell in his book “Machine Learning” valid?

The definition machine learning is as follows: A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some task T and performance measure P, if its performance at task T, as ...
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What is a bad local minimum in machine learning?

What is "bad local minima"? The following papers all mention this expression. Eliminating all bad Local Minima from Loss Landscapes without even adding an Extra Unit limination of All Bad Local ...
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1answer
161 views

What is the relation between a policy which is the solution to a MDP and a policy like $\epsilon$-greedy?

In the context of reinforcement learning, a policy, $\pi$, is often defined as a function from the space of states, $\mathcal{S}$, to the space of actions, $\mathcal{A}$, that is, $\pi : \mathcal{S} \...
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Continuous-attractor neural network explanation

I am reading about CANN, however, I do not seem to grasp what it is. Maybe someone who has worked with it can explain it? I found out about it while reading about RatSLAM. I understand that it helps ...
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1answer
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Is an algorithm that is no longer actively learning an AI?

This question assumes a definition of AI based on machine learning, and was inspired by this fun Technology Review post: SOURCE: Is this AI? We drew you a flowchart to work it out (Karen Hao, MIT ...
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367 views

What other kind of AIs exist apart from goal-driven?

Goal-driven AIs is the only kind of AI I am aware of. However, Marcus Hutter claims the following Most, if not all known facets of intelligence can be formulated as goal driven or, more generally, ...
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3answers
975 views

What is the actual learning algorithm: back-propagation or gradient descent?

What is the actual learning algorithm: back-propagation or gradient descent (or, in general, the optimization algorithm)? I am reading through chapter 8 of Parallel Distributed Processing hand book ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between an observation and a state in reinforcement learning?

I'm studying reinforcement learning. It seems that "state" and "observation" mean exactly the same thing. They both capture the current state of the game. Is there a difference between the two terms?...
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2answers
3k views

What is the difference between a receptive field and a feature map?

In a CNN, the receptive field is the portion of the image used to compute the filter's output. But one filter's output (which is also called a "feature map") is the next filter's input. What's the ...
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1answer
177 views

What is USV In NLP?

3 SVD Based Methods For this class of methods to find word embeddings (otherwise known as word vectors), we first loop over a massive data set and accumulate word co-occurrence counts in some form of ...
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2answers
532 views

What exactly are the differences between semantic and lexical-semantic networks?

What exactly are the differences between semantic and lexical-semantic networks?
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1answer
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Biological analogy for boosting and inhibition idea in Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM)

I've just watched the 9th episode of HTM school about the "boosting" and "inhibition" ideas. However, I couldn't find the neuroscience counterpart of these terms and concepts. Since HTM is a ...
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1answer
107 views

Is it a valid Deep Neural Network?

For a regression task, I have sequences of training data and if I define the layers of deep neural network to be: Layers=[ sequenceInputLayer(featuredimension) reluLayer dropoutLayer(0.05) ...
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1answer
47 views

What is a model and how is it designed?

I read these things on the internet like My model determines the future scope..." or My model gives accurate readings about what the score would be..." What are these models? How are they ...