Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions related to the definition of and use of terminology in the context of Artificial Intelligence

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What is the definition of each of these neural network cell types?

I found this nice-ish-looking diagram, but it has a wholly inadequate descriptions for each of the cell types, aside from including names. What is the definition/description of each of these cell ...
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423 views

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and cognitive science?

Sometimes I understand that people doing cognitive science try to avoid the term artificial intelligence. The feeling I get is that there is a need to put some distance to the GOFAI. Another ...
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504 views

What exactly are the differences between semantic and lexical-semantic networks?

What exactly are the differences between semantic and lexical-semantic networks?
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745 views

Are iterative deepening, principal variation search or quiescence search extensions of alpha-beta pruning?

I know that there are several optimizations for alpha-beta pruning. For example, I have come across iterative deepening, principal variation search, or quiescence search. However, I am a little bit ...
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574 views

Is transistor the first artificial intelligence?

Artificial Intelligence is any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal. I got this definition from Wikipedia that cited "Russell and ...
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899 views

What is Reinforcement Learning?

What is the cleanest, easiest way to explain someone who is a non-STEM work colleague the concept of Reinforcement Learning? What are the main ideas behind Reinforcement Learning?
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909 views

What is the actual learning algorithm: back-propagation or gradient descent?

What is the actual learning algorithm: back-propagation or gradient descent (or, in general, the optimization algorithm)? I am reading through chapter 8 of Parallel Distributed Processing hand book ...
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207 views

Is a multilayer perceptron a recursive function?

I read somewhere that a multilayer perceptron is a recursive function in its forward propagation phase. I am not sure, what is the recursive part? For me, I would see an MLP as a chained function. So, ...
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139 views

What is the relation between the context in contextual bandits and the state in reinforcement learning?

Conceptually, in general, how is the context being handled in contextual bandits (CB), compared to states in reinforcement learning (RL)? Specifically, in RL, we can use a function approximator (e.g. ...
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773 views

What is a high dimensional state in reinforcement learning?

In the DQN paper, it is written that the state-space is high dimensional. I am a little bit confused about this terminology. Suppose my state is a high dimensional vector of length $N$, where $N$ is a ...
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367 views

What is “conditioning” on a feature?

On page 98 of Jet Substructure at the Large Hadron Collider: A Review of Recent Advances in Theory and Machine Learning the author writes; Redacted phase space: Studying the distribution of inputs ...
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81 views

What are the differences between an agent that thinks rationally and an agent that acts rationally?

Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig pointed out 4 four possible goals to pursue in artificial intelligence: systems that think/act humanly/rationally. What are the differences between an agent that ...
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794 views

What does the term “closed expression” mean?

In the field of logic systems there is a property for reasoning algorithms called incompleteness or incompletion. In this context the phrase "any closed expression that is not derivable inside the ...
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663 views

What is the “semantic level”?

I am reading the paper Hierarchical Attention-Based Recurrent Highway Networks for Time Series Prediction (2018) by Yunzhe Tao et al. In this paper, they use several times the expression "semantic ...
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194 views

How do I recognise a bandit problem?

I'm having difficulty understanding the distinction between a bandit problem and a non-bandit problem. An example of the bandit problem is an agent playing $n$ slot machines with the goal of ...
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1k views

Is REINFORCE the same as 'vanilla policy gradient'?

I don't know what people mean by 'vanilla policy gradient', but what comes to mind is REINFORCE, which is the simplest policy gradient algorithm I can think of. Is this an accurate statement? By ...
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845 views

What is the difference between an episode, a trajectory and a rollout?

I often see the terms episode, trajectory and rollout to refer to basically the same thing, a list of (state, action, rewards). Are there any concrete differences between the terms or can they be used ...
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1k views

What is the difference between on and off-policy deterministic actor-critic?

In the paper Deterministic Policy Gradient Algorithms, I am really confused about chapter 4.1 and 4.2 which is "On and off-policy Deterministic Actor-Critic". I don't know what's the difference ...
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3k views

What is the difference between assisted and unassisted learning in relation to AI?

Is this related to supervised and unsupervised machine learning? Is it related to AI assisted human learning, and what is the distinction? Also, why is assisted machine learning seen as an ...
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117 views

Why does a Lipschitz continuous discriminator in GANs assure statistical boundedness?

I have been reading the paper which introduced spectral normalization in GANs. At some point the paper mentions the following: The machine learning community has been pointing out recently that ...
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137 views

Is an algorithm that is no longer actively learning an AI?

This question assumes a definition of AI based on machine learning, and was inspired by this fun Technology Review post: SOURCE: Is this AI? We drew you a flowchart to work it out (Karen Hao, MIT ...
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202 views

What is a weighted average in a non-stationary k-armed bandit problem?

In the book Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction (page 25), by Richard S. Sutton and Andrew G. Barto, there is a discussion of the k-armed bandit problem, where the expected reward from the bandits ...
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Is AI entirely a part of Computer Science?

Both AI and Computer Science are Sciences, as I understood from Wikipedia, Computer Science is everything that has any relation to computers. And AI is commonly defined as Study of machines that ...
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366 views

Can CNNs be made robust to tricks where small changes cause misclassification?

I while ago I read that you can make subtle changes to an image that will ensure a good CNN will horribly misclassify the image. I believe the changes must exploit details of the CNN that will be used ...
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What is a “surrogate model”?

In the following paragraph from the book Automated Machine Learning: Methods, Systems, Challenges (by Frank Hutter et al.) In this section we first give a brief introduction to Bayesian ...
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239 views

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and swarm intelligence?

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. The term may also be applied to any machine ...
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240 views

What is “Computational Linguistics”?

It's not clear to me whether or not someone whose work aims to improve an NLP system may be called a "Computational Linguist" even when she/he doesn't modify the algorithm directly by coding. Let's ...
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363 views

What other kind of AIs exist apart from goal-driven?

Goal-driven AIs is the only kind of AI I am aware of. However, Marcus Hutter claims the following Most, if not all known facets of intelligence can be formulated as goal driven or, more generally, ...
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785 views

What is difference between edge computing and federated learning?

I recently read about federated learning introduced by Google, but it seems to be like edge computing. What is the difference between edge computing and federated learning?
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648 views

Does the “lowest layer” refer to the first or last layer of the neural network?

People sometimes use 1st layer, 2nd layer to refer to a specific layer in a neural net. Is the layer immediately follows the input layer called 1st layer? How about the lowest layer and highest layer?...
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394 views

What does end-to-end training mean?

In simple words, what does end-to-end training mean, in the context of deep learning?
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694 views

What does 'democratizing AI' exactly mean?

In my AI literature research, I often notice authors use term 'democratizing AI', especially in the AutoML area. I think I have an idea of what this means, but I would like to ask you for some more ...
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224 views

What is an artificial neural network?

What is an artificial neural network in artificial intelligence? It is apparently used to find patterns in data and it is loosely inspired by human neural networks.
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45 views

What is the difference between a problem representation and problem modelling?

As far as I know, a problem representation is the formulation of the problem in a way that it can be programmed and therefore solved (for example, you can represent the $N$-queens problem by using an ...
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146 views

What is the relation between a policy which is the solution to a MDP and a policy like $\epsilon$-greedy?

In the context of reinforcement learning, a policy, $\pi$, is often defined as a function from the space of states, $\mathcal{S}$, to the space of actions, $\mathcal{A}$, that is, $\pi : \mathcal{S} \...
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Is the word “pose” used correctly in the paper “Matrix Capsules with EM Routing”?

In traditional computer vision and computer graphics, the pose matrix is a $4 \times 4$ matrix of the form $$ \begin{bmatrix} r_{11} & r_{12} & r_{12} & t_{1} \\ r_{21} & r_{...
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What is feature embedding in the context of convolutional neural networks?

What are feature embeddings in the context of convolutional neural networks? Is it related to bottleneck features or feature vectors?
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729 views

Are Rationality and Intelligence distinct?

This just popped into my head, and I haven't thought it through, but it feels like a sound question. The definition of intelligence might still be somewhat fuzzy, possibly a factor of our evolving ...
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How can I understand this statement about RNNs and hidden layers?

In the lecture, there was a statement: Recurrent neural networks with multiple hidden layers are just a special case that has some of the hidden to hidden connections missing. I understand ...
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475 views

What is the difference between abstract, autonomous and virtual intelligent agents?

On Wikipedia, we can read about different type of intelligent agents: abstract intelligent agents (AIA), autonomous intelligent agents, virtual intelligent agent (IVA), which I've found on other ...
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775 views

What is the meaning of “stationarity of statistics” and “locality of pixel dependencies”?

I'm reading the ImageNet Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks paper by Krizhevsky et al, and came across these lines in the Intro paragraph: Their (convolutional neural networks') ...
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723 views

What is the relation between an environment, a state and a model?

In particular, I would like to have a simple definition of "environment" and "state". What are the differences between those two concepts? Also, I would like to know how the concept of model relates ...
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52 views

What is a unified neural network model?

In many articles (for example, in the YOLO paper, this paper or this one), I see the term "unified" being used. I was wondering what the meaning of "unified" in this case is.
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234 views

What is the meaning of “exploration” in reinforcement and supervised learning?

While exploration is an integral part of reinforcement learning (RL), it does not pertain to supervised learning (SL) since the latter is already provided with the data set from the start. That said, ...
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74 views

What are the exact meaning of “lower-order structure” and “higher-order structure” in this paper?

I recently read a paper on community detection in networks. In the paper EdMot: An Edge Enhancement Approach for Motif-aware Community Detection, the authors consider the "lower-order structure" of ...
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36 views

Visualizing the Loss Landscape of Neural Nets: Meaning of the word 'filter'?

I found myself scratching my head when I read the following phrase in the paper Visualizing the Loss Landscape of Neural Nets: To remove this scaling effect, we plot loss functions using filter-wise ...
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90 views

$\frac{P(x_1 \mid y, s = 1) \dots P(x_n \mid y, s = 1) P(y \mid s = 1)}{P(x \mid s = 1)}$ indicates that naive Bayes learners are global learners?

I am currently studying the paper Learning and Evaluating Classifiers under Sample Selection Bias by Bianca Zadrozny. In section 3. Learning under sample selection bias, the author says the following: ...
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128 views

What is local consistency in constraint satisfaction problems?

In the Constraint Propagation in CSP, it is often stated that pre-processing can solve the whole problem, so no search is required at all. And the key idea is local consistency. What does this ...
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186 views

Why is the target called “target” in Monte Carlo and TD learning if it is not the true target?

I was going through Sutton's book and, using sample-based learning for estimating the expectations, we have this formula $$ \text{new estimate} = \text{old estimate} + \alpha(\text{target} - \text{old ...
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696 views

What is the difference between policy and action in reinforcement learning?

I'm confused with the two terminology - action and policy - in Reinforcement Learning. As far as I know, the action is: It is what the agent makes in a given state. However, the book I'm reading ...