Questions tagged [weights]

For questions about the concept of weight (or parameter) of a machine learning model, such as a neural network or a linear regression model.

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21 views

In mini-batch gradient descent, are the weights updated after each batch or after all the batches have gone through an epoch?

Say I have a mini-batch of size 32, and I have 10 such batches. Assuming I only run it for one epoch (just for the sake of understanding it), Will the weights be updated using the gradients of one ...
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49 views

Correctly input additional values into CNN

I understand that in order to add additional inputs to a CNN, e.g. in self driving, I can append the data to a flattened layer after the convolutions and before the fully connected layers. However, a ...
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31 views

Using parameter estimation for training a neural network

Assume that we have 4 layers in a neural network. $$z_1 = L_1(x, W_1)$$ $$z_2 = L_2(z_1, W_2)$$ $$z_3 = L_3(z_2, W_3)$$ $$y = L_1(z_3, W_4)$$ Where $x$ is the vector input, $y$ is the vector output ...
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16 views

How did authors ensure that critical points do exist in GAN?

Using an MLP as generator introduces multiple critical points in parameter space. You can read this excerpt from research paper titled Generative Adversarial Nets In practice, adversarial nets ...
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6 views

Are there any connectionist parametric models with non-neuron building blocks?

Parametric models allows learning by converging to the desired parameters, which are randomly initialized initially. Among the parametric models, especially in connectionist AI, neural networks are ...
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18 views

How to handle critical points during generator training?

Using an MLP as generator introduces multiple critical points in parameter space. You can read this excerpt from research paper titled Generative Adversarial Nets In practice, adversarial nets ...
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16 views

Recursive Least squares (RLS) for mini batch

For my application I am considering a learning problem where I simulate a bunch of episodes say '$n$' first, and than carry out the recursive least squares update. Similar to $TD(1)$. I know that RLS ...
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1answer
40 views

Is precision of weights unimportant in neural networks?

While reading about Module in PyTorch, I came across a new data type called half datatype. half() method when calls on a Module ...
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47 views

What are the numbers that are useful (may need to be stored) other than parameters of a model?

Consider the following method related to buffers in PyTorch ...
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49 views

Can some of the weights be fixed during the training of a neural network?

Is it possible to exclude specific layers from the optimization? For example, let's say I have an input layer, 2 hidden layers, and the output layer. I know there is a perfect solution for my problem ...
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15 views

Prioritized Experience Replay, clarifications for Important Sampling

I can't seem to understand how the weight equation is dissected and how it really works when combined with the TD-error value. The weight equation is: I can understand what N, P(i) and beta represent,...
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43 views

Which solutions are there to the problem of having too large activations before the softmax (or sigmoid) layer?

I'm trying to build a neural network (NN) for classification using only N-bit integers for both the activations and weights, then I will train it with some heuristic algorithm, based only on the NN ...
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224 views

If I have a feature matrix of shape $1200 \times 2000$, should I have $2000$ input neurons?

I have an input feature matrix (row-normalized) of size $1200 \times 2000$. When I am writing my neural network, is the number of input neurons equal to the number of columns, that is $2000$? Is it ...
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1answer
28 views

Why are weights not initialized with mean=1?

I wonder why weights are initialized with zero-mean. It is one of the reasons, why deep architectures cannot be trained without skip connections. Without the skip connections, the zero initialization ...
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20 views

Which methods for weight initialization in Neural Networks are currently common practice?

I am currently researching the topic of weight initialization methods for (deep) neural networks and I'm a little stuck. The result of my work should be an overview of methods that are currently in ...
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110 views

Is the bias also a "weight" in a neural network?

I'm learning about how neural networks are trained. I understand how a neuron works, backpropagation, and all that. In neurons, there is a clear distinction between a "weight" and a "...
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17 views

What is the effect and behavior of using mixed weight instead of normal weight matrix?

Suppose I try to find appropriate matrix A in differential equation $\dot{X}=A X$ using RNN. Current state is $X=\begin{bmatrix} x_{1}\\ x_{2}\\ \end{bmatrix}$, and desired trajectory state is $X_d=\...
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12 views

How to update all the weights in case only one data out of n signals is observable

If we have cost function as $$E_i = (D_i -Y_i)^T Q (D_i -Y_i)$$, where $$Q=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0\\ 0 & 0 & 0\\ 0 & 0 & 0 \end{bmatrix}$$( in case only one data signal can ...
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1answer
55 views

Is this LSTM layer learning anything?

I've trained a CNN-LSTM model but the results weren't satisfactory, so I took a look at my weight distributions and this is what I got: I don't understand. Is this layer learning anything? Or no? ...
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1answer
38 views

How to train a neural network with few weights and biases held constant?

I am a beginner in neural networks. I am building a neural network with 3 layers. The input $X$ has 7 features and the output $Y$ is a real number. In the hidden layer, there are two nodes. The bottom ...
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1answer
144 views

Why did the developement of neural networks stop between 50s and 80s?

In a video lecture on the development of neural networks and the history of deep learning (you can start from minute 13), the lecturer (Yann LeCunn) said that the development of neural networks ...
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1answer
46 views

Does the weight vector form imply feature space curvature?

I came across this sentence when exploring a simple nearest neighbor classifier method using Euclidean distance (link): The slightly odd thing about using the Euclidean distance to compare features ...
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1answer
107 views

Is there a convention on the order of multiplication of the weights with the inputs in neural nets?

Is there a convention on how the input data and the weights are multiplied? The input data can be anything, including the result from the previous layers. There are two options: Option 1: $$\begin{...
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42 views

Why does sigmoid saturation prevent signal flow through the neuron?

As per these slides on page 35: Sigmoids saturate and kill gradients. when the neuron's activation saturates at either tail of 0 or 1, the gradient at these regions is almost zero. the gradient and ...
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59 views

Are there any new weight initialization techniques for DNN published after 2015?

Considering weights initialization in my personal projects, I always used some standard techniques such as: Glorot (also known as Xavier) initialization (2010). Mertens initialization (2010). He ...
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1answer
53 views

What are acting as weights in a convolution neural network?

Looking at some old notes I took on CNN's and I wrote down that the weights in a CNN are acting like filters in a CNN but to be honest I don't really know what the weights are acting as in a CNN and ...
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24 views

How do we interpret the images of weights in logistic regression

The following images are a) The weights of a logistic regression model trained on MNIST. b) The sign of the weights of a logistic regression How do these images represent the weights? Would be ...
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1answer
33 views

Adding Class Weights for imbalanced dataset?

Suppose I have the following toy data set: Each instance has multiple labels at a time. Now you can see I have 2 instances for Label2, however, only one, one instance for other labels. It means, we ...
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45 views

When is using weight regularization bad?

Regularization of weights (e.g. L1 or L2) keeps them small and standardized, which can help reduce data overfitting. From this article, regularization sounds favorable in many cases, but is it always ...
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60 views

Is the performance of a neural network, which was trained with encrypted data and weights, affected if the weights are decrypted?

Suppose that a neural network is trained with encrypted (for example, with homomorphic encryption and, more precisely, with the Paillier partial scheme) data. Moreover, suppose that it is also trained ...
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64 views

Why is there a Uniform and Normal version of He / Xavier initialization in DL libraries?

Two of the most popular initialization schemes for neural network weights today are Xavier and He. Both methods propose random weight initialization with a variance dependent on the number of input ...
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1answer
59 views

In attention models with multiple layers, are weight matrices shared across layers?

In articles that describe neural architectures with multiple attention layers of the same form, are the weight matrices usually the same across the layers? Consider as an example, "Attention is ...
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2answers
128 views

In the multi-head attention mechanism of the transformer, why do we need both $W_i^Q$ and ${W_i^K}^T$?

In the Attention is all you need paper, on the 4th page, we have equation 1, which describes the self-attention mechanism of the transformer architecture $$ \text { Attention }(Q, K, V)=\operatorname{...
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48 views

Why should variance(output) equal variance(input) in Xavier Initialisation?

In a lot of explanations online for Xavier Initialization, I see the following: With each passing layer, we want the variance to remain the same. This helps us keep the signal from exploding to a ...
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71 views

How many parameters does the AI of a typical self driving car have?

I can find the number of parameters AIs such as GPT3 or OpenAI Five have, but I'm having a difficult time googling the number of parameters a self driving car has because Google searches keeps using ...
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46 views

How efficient is SCAWI weight initialization method?

I'm currently in the middle of a project (for my thesis) constructing a deep neural network. Since I'm still in the research part, I'm trying to find various ways and techniques to initialize weights. ...
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1answer
48 views

Should the range and initial values of weights and biases be adjusted to fit input and output data?

As a routine (in typical everyday tasks) of a data scientist, should they usually decide about weights and biases range and initial values as a function of which data they are planning to insert as ...
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1answer
95 views

Which hyperparameters in neural network are accesible to users adjustment

I am new to Neural Networks and my questions are still very basic. I know that most of neural networks allow and even ask user to chose hyper-parameters like: amount of hidden layers amount of ...
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2answers
149 views

What is the goal of weight initialization in neural networks?

This is a simple question. I know the weights in a neural network can be initialized in many different ways like: random uniform distribution, normal distribution, and Xavier initialization. But what ...
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1answer
73 views

What are some examples of functions that machine learning models compute?

My simple understanding of AI is that it is based on a mathematical model of a problem. If I understood correctly, the model is a polynomial equation and its weights are calculated by training the ...
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1answer
39 views

Are there examples of agents that use a more modest number of parameters on Pendulum (or similar environments)?

I'm looking at some baseline implementations of RL agents on the Pendulum environment. My guess was to use a relatively small neural net (~100 parameters). I'm comparing my solution with some ...
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1answer
48 views

When would bias regularisation and activation regularisation be necessary?

For Keras on TensorFlow, a layer class constructor comes with these: kernel_regularizer=... bias_regularizer=... ...
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1answer
51 views

Does the number of parameters in a convolutional neuronal network increase if the input dimension increases?

If I have a convolutional neuronal network, does the input dimension change the number of parameters? And if yes, why? If the sizes and lengths of the filters are still the same, how can the number of ...
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81 views

LSTM - MAPE Loss Function gives Better Results when Data is De-Scaled before Loss Calculation

I am building an LSTM for predicting a price chart. MAPE resulted in the best loss function compared to ...
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1answer
58 views

Is better to spend parameters on weights or bias?

If a neural network has a limited number of neuron parameters to find, -let's say only 1000 parameters-, it is generally better to spend the parameters on weights or neuron bias? For example, if each ...
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3answers
217 views

Backpropagation of neural nets with shared weight

I am trying to understand the mathematics behind the forward and backward propagation of neural nets. To make myself more comfortable, I am testing myself with an arbitrarily chosen neural network. ...
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2answers
133 views

How are non-linear surfaces formed in the training of a neural network?

Desperate trying to understand something for couple of weeks. All those questions are actually one big question.Please help me. Time-codes and screens in my question refer to this great(IMHO) 3d ...
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38 views

Is having binary randomized unchanging neural network weights a good idea?

I am creating a neural network to experiment with, and I was wondering: If I have weights randomly initialized to be either 1 or 0 for each neuron, and then I made it so that the weights cannot be ...
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1answer
119 views

How are weights for weighted x-entropy loss on imbalanced data calculated?

I am trying to build a classifier which should be trained with the cross entropy loss. The training data is highly class-imbalanced. To tackle this, I've gone through the advice of the tensorflow docs ...
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2answers
247 views

Can neurons in MLP and filters in CNN be compared?

I know they are not the same in working, but an input layer sends the input to $n$ neurons with a set of weights, based on these weights and the activation layer, it produces an output that can be fed ...