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148
votes
12answers
40k views

Could a paradox kill an AI?

In Portal 2 we see that AI's can be "killed" by thinking about a paradox. I assume this works by forcing the AI into an infinite loop which would essentially "freeze" the computer's consciousness. ...
73
votes
13answers
5k views

How could self-driving cars make ethical decisions about who to kill?

Obviously, self-driving cars aren't perfect, so imagine that the Google car (as an example) got into a difficult situation. Here are a few examples of unfortunate situations caused by a set of events:...
73
votes
17answers
12k views

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and machine learning?

These two terms seem to be related, especially in their application in computer science and software engineering. Is one a subset of another? Is one a tool used to build a system for the other? ...
69
votes
8answers
11k views

Do scientists know what is happening inside artificial neural networks?

Do scientists or research experts know from the kitchen what is happening inside complex "deep" neural network with at least millions of connections firing at an instant? Do they understand the ...
63
votes
9answers
5k views

How is it possible that deep neural networks are so easily fooled?

The following page/study demonstrates that the deep neural networks are easily fooled by giving high confidence predictions for unrecognisable images, e.g. How this is possible? Can you please ...
46
votes
7answers
25k views

Why is Python such a popular language in the AI field?

First of all, I'm a beginner studying AI and this is not an opinion oriented question or one to compare programming languages. I'm not saying that is the best language. But the fact is that most of ...
44
votes
9answers
9k views

Why do we need explainable AI?

If the original purpose for developing AI was to help humans in some tasks and that purpose still holds, why should we care about its explainability? For example, in deep learning, as long as the ...
41
votes
3answers
27k views

How can neural networks deal with varying input sizes?

As far as I can tell, neural networks have a fixed number of neurons in the input layer. If neural networks are used in a context like NLP, sentences or blocks of text of varying sizes are fed to a ...
39
votes
3answers
21k views

What is the difference between strong-AI and weak-AI?

I've heard the terms strong-AI and weak-AI used. Are these well defined terms or subjective ones? How are they generally defined?
39
votes
5answers
1k views

To what extent can quantum computers help to develop Artificial Intelligence?

What aspects of quantum computers, if any, can help to further develop Artificial Intelligence?
37
votes
14answers
9k views

How could artificial intelligence harm us?

We often hear that artificial intelligence may harm or even kill humans, so it might prove dangerous. How could artificial intelligence harm us?
37
votes
5answers
2k views

What is fuzzy logic?

I'm new to A.I. and I'd like to know in simple words, what is the fuzzy logic concept? How does it help, and when is it used?
37
votes
4answers
9k views

Are neural networks prone to catastrophic forgetting?

Imagine you show a neural network a picture of a lion 100 times and label with "dangerous", so it learns that lions are dangerous. Now imagine that previously you have shown it millions of images of ...
34
votes
5answers
21k views

How does Hinton's “capsules theory” work?

Geoffrey Hinton has been researching something he calls "capsules theory" in neural networks. What is this and how does it work?
34
votes
6answers
3k views

Is the Turing Test, or any of its variants, a reliable test of artificial intelligence?

The Turing Test was the first test of artificial intelligence and is now a bit outdated. The Total Turing Test aims to be a more modern test which requires a much more sophisticated system. What ...
34
votes
1answer
19k views

Which library would you recommend to begin with deep learning?

Which library (TensorFlow or Keras) would you recommend for a first approach to deep learning? I'm a neuroscience student trying for the first time computational approaches, if that matters.
31
votes
4answers
1k views

What is the concept of the technological singularity?

I've heard the idea of the technological singularity, what is it and how does it relate to Artificial Intelligence? Is this the theoretical point where Artificial Intelligence machines have progressed ...
30
votes
8answers
13k views

Is a switch from R to Python worth it?

I just finished a 1-year Data Science master's program where we were taught R. I found that Python is more popular and has a larger community in AI. Is it worth for someone in my position to switch ...
29
votes
3answers
17k views

Why is Lisp such a good language for AI?

I've heard before from computer scientists and from researchers in the area of AI that that Lisp is a good language for research and development in artificial intelligence. Does this still apply, with ...
28
votes
16answers
9k views

Can digital computers understand infinity?

As a human being, we can think infinity. In principle, if we have enough resources (time etc.), we can count infinitely many things (including abstract, like numbers, or real). For example, at least, ...
28
votes
4answers
887 views

How to find the optimal number of neurons per layer?

When you're writing your algorithm, how do you know how many neurons you need per single layer? Are there any methods for finding the optimal number of them, or is it a rule of thumb?
28
votes
8answers
24k views

In a CNN, does each new filter have different weights for each input channel, or are the same weights of each filter used across input channels?

My understanding is that the convolutional layer of a convolutional neural network has four dimensions: input_channels, filter_height, filter_width, number_of_filters. Furthermore, it is my ...
28
votes
4answers
38k views

How to select number of hidden layers and number of memory cells in an LSTM?

I am trying to find some existing research on how to select the number of hidden layers and the size of these of an LSTM-based RNN. Is there an article where this problem is being investigated, i.e., ...
27
votes
9answers
6k views

What is the actual quality of machine translations?

Till today I - as an AI layman - am confused by the promised and achieved improvements of automated translation. My impression is: there is still a very, very far way to go. Or are there other ...
27
votes
9answers
5k views

Is artificial intelligence vulnerable to hacking?

The paper The Limitations of Deep Learning in Adversarial Settings explores how neural networks might be corrupted by an attacker who can manipulate the data set that the neural network trains with. ...
27
votes
5answers
11k views

What's the difference between model-free and model-based reinforcement learning?

What's the difference between model-free and model-based reinforcement learning? It seems to me that any model-free learner, learning through trial and error, could be reframed as model-based. In ...
24
votes
2answers
810 views

How is a deep neural network different from other neural networks?

How is a neural network having the "deep" adjective actually distinguished from other similar networks?
23
votes
7answers
2k views

What are the minimum requirements to call something AI?

I believe artificial intelligence (AI) term is overused nowadays. For example, people see that something is self-moving and they call it AI, even if it's on autopilot (like cars or planes) or there is ...
23
votes
5answers
14k views

Is it possible to train the neural network to solve math equations?

I'm aware that neural networks are probably not designed to do that, however asking hypothetically, is it possible to train the deep neural network (or similar) to solve math equations? So given the ...
23
votes
4answers
1k views

Are Siri and Cortana AI programs?

Siri and Cortana communicate pretty much like humans. Unlike Google now which mainly gives us search results when asked some questions (not setting alarms or reminders), Siri and Cortana provide us ...
23
votes
2answers
7k views

Is it possible to train a neural network incrementally?

I would like to train a neural network where the output classes are not (all) defined from the start. More and more classes will be introduced later based on incoming data. This means that, every time ...
22
votes
6answers
5k views

What are the current theories on developing a conscious AI?

Is most development or theory geared towards the idea that consciousness is an emergent phenomenon? That once we put enough complexity into our system, it will become self-aware? Or is this even a ...
22
votes
5answers
1k views

How could emotional intelligence be implemented?

I've seen emotional intelligence defined as the capacity to be aware of, control, and express one's emotions, and to handle interpersonal relationships judiciously and empathetically. What are some ...
22
votes
2answers
871 views

Are there any ongoing projects which use the Stack Exchange for machine learning?

Are there any ongoing AI projects which use the Stack Exchange for machine learning?
21
votes
4answers
314 views

Is the pattern recognition capability of CNNs limited to image processing?

Can a Convolutional Neural Network be used for pattern recognition in a problem domain where there are no pre-existing images, say by representing abstract data graphically? Would that always be less ...
21
votes
4answers
7k views

Could a neural network detect primes?

I am not looking for an efficient way to find primes (which of course is a solved problem). This is more of a "what if" question. So, in theory: Could you train a neural network to predict whether ...
21
votes
4answers
3k views

Can deep networks be trained to prove theorems?

Assume we have a large number of proofs in first order predicate calculus. Assume we also have the axioms, corollaries, and theorems in that area of mathematics in that form too. Consider the each ...
20
votes
8answers
4k views

Is there any research on the development of attacks against artificial intelligence systems?

Is there any research on the development of attacks against artificial intelligence systems? For example, is there a way to generate a letter "A", which every human being in this world can recognize ...
20
votes
4answers
1k views

Is Lisp still being used to tackle AI problems?

I know that language of Lisp was used early on when working on artificial intelligence problems. Is it still being used today for significant work? If not, is there a new language that has taken its ...
20
votes
11answers
1k views

What is artificial intelligence?

What is the definition of artificial intelligence?
19
votes
11answers
729 views

What purpose would be served by developing AI's that experience human-like emotions?

In a recent Wall Street Journal article, Yann LeCunn makes the following statement: The next step in achieving human-level ai is creating intelligent—but not autonomous—machines. The AI system in ...
19
votes
4answers
5k views

How to handle invalid moves in reinforcement learning?

I want to create an AI which can play five-in-a-row/gomoku. As I mentioned in the title, I want to use reinforcement learning for this. I use policy gradient method, namely REINFORCE, with baseline. ...
19
votes
1answer
4k views

What is the relation between Q-learning and policy gradients methods?

As far as I understand, Q-learning and policy gradients (PG) are the two major approaches used to solve RL problems. While Q-learning aims to predict the reward of a certain action taken in a certain ...
19
votes
3answers
503 views

Are Asimov's Laws flawed by design, or are they feasible in practice?

Isaac Asimov's famous Three Laws of Robotics originated in the context of Asimov's science fiction stories. In those stories, the three laws serve as a safety measure, in order to avoid untimely or ...
19
votes
2answers
1k views

What are the flaws in Jeff Hawkins's AI framework?

In 2004 Jeff Hawkins, inventor of the palm pilot, published a very interesting book called On Intelligence, in which he details a theory how the human neocortex works. This theory is called Memory-...
18
votes
4answers
9k views

What is a Dynamic Computational Graph?

Frameworks like PyTorch and TensorFlow through TensorFlow Fold support Dynamic Computational Graphs and are receiving attention from data scientists. However, there seems to be a lack of resource to ...
18
votes
1answer
598 views

Would Google's self-driving-car stop when it sees somebody with a T-shirt with a stop sign printed on it?

In Hidden Obstacles for Google’s Self-Driving Cars article we can read that: Google’s cars can detect and respond to stop signs that aren’t on its map, a feature that was introduced to deal with ...
18
votes
1answer
695 views

Has the Lovelace Test 2.0 been successfully used in an academic setting?

In October 2014, Dr. Mark Riedl published an approach to testing AI intelligence, called the "Lovelace Test 2.0", after being inspired by the original Lovelace Test (published in 2001). Mark believed ...
17
votes
7answers
1k views

If digital values are mere estimates, why not return to analog for AI?

The impetus behind the twentieth century transition from analog to digital circuitry was driven by the desire for greater accuracy and lower noise. Now we are developing software where results are ...
17
votes
2answers
719 views

What limits, if any, does the halting problem put on Artificial Intelligence?

Given the proven halting problem for Turing machines, can we infer limits on the ability of strong Artificial Intelligence?

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