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182 votes
12 answers
60k views

Could a paradox kill an AI?

In Portal 2 we see that AI's can be "killed" by thinking about a paradox. I assume this works by forcing the AI into an infinite loop which would essentially "freeze" the computer's consciousness. ...
Josh B.'s user avatar
  • 1,949
104 votes
14 answers
8k views

How could self-driving cars make ethical decisions about who to kill?

Obviously, self-driving cars aren't perfect, so imagine that the Google car (as an example) got into a difficult situation. Here are a few examples of unfortunate situations caused by a set of events: ...
kenorb's user avatar
  • 10.5k
104 votes
9 answers
17k views

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and machine learning?

These two terms seem to be related, especially in their application in computer science and software engineering. Is one a subset of another? Is one a tool used to build a system for the other? What ...
intcreator's user avatar
  • 1,335
102 votes
4 answers
88k views

How can neural networks deal with varying input sizes?

As far as I can tell, neural networks have a fixed number of neurons in the input layer. If neural networks are used in a context like NLP, sentences or blocks of text of varying sizes are fed to a ...
Asciiom's user avatar
  • 1,171
98 votes
7 answers
20k views

Do scientists know what is happening inside artificial neural networks?

Do scientists or research experts know from the kitchen what is happening inside complex "deep" neural network with at least millions of connections firing at an instant? Do they understand ...
kenorb's user avatar
  • 10.5k
97 votes
3 answers
86k views

What is self-supervised learning in machine learning?

What is self-supervised learning in machine learning? How is it different from supervised learning?
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.9k
91 votes
6 answers
100k views

What's the difference between model-free and model-based reinforcement learning?

What's the difference between model-free and model-based reinforcement learning? It seems to me that any model-free learner, learning through trial and error, could be reframed as model-based. In ...
mynameisvinn's user avatar
  • 1,011
88 votes
9 answers
8k views

How is it possible that deep neural networks are so easily fooled?

The following page/study demonstrates that the deep neural networks are easily fooled by giving high confidence predictions for unrecognisable images, e.g. How this is possible? Can you please ...
kenorb's user avatar
  • 10.5k
72 votes
9 answers
11k views

Why do we need explainable AI?

If the original purpose for developing AI was to help humans in some tasks and that purpose still holds, why should we care about its explainability? For example, in deep learning, as long as the ...
malioboro's user avatar
  • 2,819
72 votes
4 answers
104k views

Why does the transformer do better than RNN and LSTM in long-range context dependencies?

I am reading the article How Transformers Work where the author writes Another problem with RNNs, and LSTMs, is that it’s hard to parallelize the work for processing sentences, since you have to ...
DRV's user avatar
  • 1,693
68 votes
10 answers
47k views

Why is Python such a popular language in the AI field?

First of all, I'm a beginner studying AI and this is not an opinion-oriented question or one to compare programming languages. I'm not implying that Python is the best language. But the fact is that ...
Douglas Ferreira's user avatar
68 votes
4 answers
122k views

How to select number of hidden layers and number of memory cells in an LSTM?

I am trying to find some existing research on how to select the number of hidden layers and the size of these of an LSTM-based RNN. Is there an article where this problem is being investigated, i.e., ...
Stephen Johnson's user avatar
66 votes
4 answers
17k views

Are neural networks prone to catastrophic forgetting?

Imagine you show a neural network a picture of a lion 100 times and label it with "dangerous", so it learns that lions are dangerous. Now imagine that previously you have shown it millions ...
zooby's user avatar
  • 2,216
66 votes
12 answers
61k views

In a CNN, does each new filter have different weights for each input channel, or are the same weights of each filter used across input channels?

My understanding is that the convolutional layer of a convolutional neural network has four dimensions: ...
Ryan Chase's user avatar
58 votes
13 answers
11k views

How could artificial intelligence harm us?

We often hear that artificial intelligence may harm or even kill humans, so it might prove dangerous. How could artificial intelligence harm us?
M14's user avatar
  • 691
58 votes
11 answers
12k views

What are some well-known problems where neural networks don't do very well?

Background: It's well-known that neural networks offer great performance across a large number of tasks, and this is largely a consequence of their universal approximation capabilities. However, in ...
ABIM's user avatar
  • 565
54 votes
2 answers
48k views

How does ChatGPT retain the context of previous questions?

One of the innovations with OpenAI's ChatGPT is how natural it is for users to interact with it. What is the technical enabler for ChatGPT to maintain the context of previous questions in its answers? ...
milez's user avatar
  • 981
51 votes
6 answers
3k views

What is fuzzy logic?

I'm new to A.I. and I'd like to know in simple words, what is the fuzzy logic concept? How does it help, and when is it used?
kenorb's user avatar
  • 10.5k
50 votes
3 answers
23k views

Was ChatGPT trained on Stack Overflow data?

Has ChatGPT used highly rated and upvoted questions/answers from Stack Overflow in its training data? For me it makes complete sense to take answers that have upwards of 100 upvotes and include them ...
Nicolas Zein's user avatar
50 votes
3 answers
24k views

What is the difference between strong-AI and weak-AI?

I've heard the terms strong-AI and weak-AI used. Are these well defined terms or subjective ones? How are they generally defined?
WilliamKF's user avatar
  • 2,513
49 votes
5 answers
2k views

To what extent can quantum computers help to develop Artificial Intelligence?

What aspects of quantum computers, if any, can help to further develop Artificial Intelligence?
wythagoras's user avatar
  • 1,521
48 votes
19 answers
16k views

Can digital computers understand infinity?

As a human being, we can think infinity. In principle, if we have enough resources (time etc.), we can count infinitely many things (including abstract, like numbers, or real). For example, at least, ...
verdery's user avatar
  • 688
45 votes
2 answers
25k views

What is the relation between Q-learning and policy gradients methods?

As far as I understand, Q-learning and policy gradients (PG) are the two major approaches used to solve RL problems. While Q-learning aims to predict the reward of a certain action taken in a certain ...
Tejas Ramdas's user avatar
43 votes
5 answers
81k views

What is the difference between a convolutional neural network and a regular neural network?

I've seen these terms thrown around this site a lot, specifically in the tags convolutional-neural-networks and neural-networks. I know that a neural network is a system based loosely on the human ...
Mithical's user avatar
  • 2,915
43 votes
6 answers
21k views

How do capsule neural networks work?

Geoffrey Hinton has been researching something he calls "capsules theory" in neural networks. What is it? How do capsule neural networks work?
rcpinto's user avatar
  • 2,119
43 votes
5 answers
24k views

Could a neural network detect primes?

I am not looking for an efficient way to find primes (which of course is a solved problem). This is more of a "what if" question. So, in theory, could you train a neural network to predict ...
Fullk33's user avatar
  • 543
42 votes
4 answers
59k views

What is the time complexity for training a neural network using back-propagation?

Suppose that a NN contains $n$ hidden layers, $m$ training examples, $x$ features, and $n_i$ nodes in each layer. What is the time complexity to train this NN using back-propagation? I have a basic ...
user avatar
41 votes
2 answers
31k views

How is ChatGPT aware of today's date?

I asked ChatGPT (3.5 and 4) about current date and (s)he answered correctly. In subsequent conversation (s)he was not able to explain how (s)he has this knowledge. I always thought that the model only ...
Peter Franek's user avatar
41 votes
5 answers
26k views

What is the purpose of an activation function in neural networks?

It is said that activation functions in neural networks help introduce non-linearity. What does this mean? What does non-linearity mean in this context? How does the introduction of this non-...
Mohsin's user avatar
  • 982
41 votes
5 answers
17k views

How should I handle invalid actions (when using REINFORCE)?

I want to create an AI which can play five-in-a-row/Gomoku. I want to use reinforcement learning for this. I use the policy gradient method, namely REINFORCE, with baseline. For the value and policy ...
Molnár István's user avatar
40 votes
6 answers
4k views

Is the Turing Test, or any of its variants, a reliable test of artificial intelligence?

The Turing Test was the first test of artificial intelligence and is now a bit outdated. The Total Turing Test aims to be a more modern test which requires a much more sophisticated system. What ...
Rob Murray's user avatar
40 votes
4 answers
2k views

What is the concept of the technological singularity?

I've heard the idea of the technological singularity, what is it and how does it relate to Artificial Intelligence? Is this the theoretical point where Artificial Intelligence machines have progressed ...
WilliamKF's user avatar
  • 2,513
39 votes
7 answers
16k views

Is the "Chinese room" an explanation of how ChatGPT works?

Sorry if this question makes no sense. I'm a software developer but know very little about AI. Quite a while ago, I read about the Chinese room, and the person inside who has had a lot of training/...
Guntram Blohm's user avatar
39 votes
3 answers
33k views

Why is Lisp such a good language for AI?

I've heard before from computer scientists and from researchers in the area of AI that that Lisp is a good language for research and development in artificial intelligence. Does this still apply, ...
Alecto Irene Perez's user avatar
39 votes
5 answers
21k views

What is the difference between latent and embedding spaces?

In general, the word "latent" means "hidden" and "to embed" means "to incorporate". In machine learning, the expressions "hidden (or latent) space" ...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.9k
38 votes
2 answers
22k views

How can Transformers handle arbitrary length input?

The transformer, introduced in the paper Attention Is All You Need, is a popular new neural network architecture that is commonly viewed as an alternative to recurrent neural networks, like LSTMs and ...
chessprogrammer's user avatar
37 votes
6 answers
11k views

Why do CNN's sometimes make highly confident mistakes, and how can one combat this problem?

I trained a simple CNN on the MNIST database of handwritten digits to 99% accuracy. I'm feeding in a bunch of handwritten digits, and non-digits from a document. I want the CNN to report errors, so I ...
Alexander Soare's user avatar
36 votes
7 answers
8k views

What are examples of promising AI/ML techniques that are computationally intractable?

To produce tangible results in the field of AI/ML, one must take theoretical results under the lens of computational complexity. Indeed, minimax effectively solves any two-person "board game"...
k.c. sayz 'k.c sayz''s user avatar
36 votes
1 answer
42k views

What is the "temperature" in the GPT models?

What does the temperature parameter mean when talking about the GPT models? I know that a higher temperature value means more randomness, but I want to know how randomness is introduced. Does ...
Tom Dörr's user avatar
  • 483
36 votes
1 answer
42k views

Meaning of roles in the API of GPT-4/ChatGPT (system/user/assistant)

In the API of GPT-4 and ChatGPT, the prompt for a chat conversation is a list of messages, each marked as one of three roles: system, ...
Volker Siegel's user avatar
35 votes
8 answers
17k views

Is a switch from R to Python worth it? [closed]

I just finished a 1-year Data Science master's program where we were taught R. I found that Python is more popular and has a larger community in AI. What are the advantages that Python may have over R ...
ItsMeMario's user avatar
35 votes
6 answers
28k views

Is it possible to train the neural network to solve math equations?

I'm aware that neural networks are probably not designed to do that, however asking hypothetically, is it possible to train the deep neural network (or similar) to solve math equations? So given the ...
kenorb's user avatar
  • 10.5k
34 votes
6 answers
11k views

How does an AI like ChatGPT answer a question in a subject which it may not know?

After seeing StackOverflow's banning of ChatGPT, I explored it out of curiosity. It's marvellous as it can write code by itself! Later to check if it knows chess as well like Google-Deepmind's ...
iammilind's user avatar
  • 443
33 votes
4 answers
2k views

How to find the optimal number of neurons per layer?

When you're writing your algorithm, how do you know how many neurons you need per single layer? Are there any methods for finding the optimal number of them, or is it a rule of thumb?
kenorb's user avatar
  • 10.5k
33 votes
5 answers
42k views

How can I deal with images of variable dimensions when doing image segmentation?

I'm facing the problem of having images of different dimensions as inputs in a segmentation task. Note that the images do not even have the same aspect ratio. One common approach that I found in ...
MattSt's user avatar
  • 597
32 votes
3 answers
42k views

Can BERT be used for sentence generating tasks?

I am a new learner in NLP. I am interested in the sentence generating task. As far as I am concerned, one state-of-the-art method is the CharRNN, which uses RNN to generate a sequence of words. ...
ch271828n's user avatar
  • 423
31 votes
7 answers
5k views

Is artificial intelligence vulnerable to hacking? [closed]

The paper The Limitations of Deep Learning in Adversarial Settings explores how neural networks might be corrupted by an attacker who can manipulate the data set that the neural network trains with. ...
Surya Sg's user avatar
  • 495
31 votes
2 answers
1k views

How is a deep neural network different from other neural networks?

How is a neural network having the "deep" adjective actually distinguished from other similar networks?
kenorb's user avatar
  • 10.5k
31 votes
3 answers
16k views

Where can I find the proof of the universal approximation theorem?

The Wikipedia article for the universal approximation theorem cites a version of the universal approximation theorem for Lebesgue-measurable functions from this conference paper. However, the paper ...
Leroy Od's user avatar
  • 475
31 votes
2 answers
20k views

What is sample efficiency, and how can importance sampling be used to achieve it?

For instance, the title of this paper reads: "Sample Efficient Actor-Critic with Experience Replay". What is sample efficiency, and how can importance sampling be used to achieve it?
Gokul NC's user avatar
  • 463

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