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40 views

What does the complexity equation constitute exactly in “Why Should I Trust You?” LIME paper

I've recently been reading this paper on LIME, an algorithm to interpret ANY machine learning model. I encountered this equation (in red) on page 4 and have just been having a hard time deciphering ...
1
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1answer
20 views

Perform clustering on high dimensional data

Recently I trained a BYOL model on a set of images to learn an embedding space where similar vectors are close by. The performance was fantastic when I performed approximate K-nearest neighbours ...
1
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0answers
87 views

Why does the schema theorem of genetic algorithms hold?

I have been reading about the Schema Theorem - one of the first theorems from the field of evolutionary computing and genetic algorithms, largely responsible for justifying the use of genetic ...
0
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0answers
13 views

what are the factors that make different Kernels in CNN? [duplicate]

what are the factors that affect the number of kernels and filters on CNN ? like one is 256 sometimes or 128 .. What does this change depend on? what is the difference between kernel and filter in the ...
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0answers
11 views

How to use tabular data and figures when the structure of data varies?

Suppose I have several journal articles. I would like to train a binary classifier on whether the journal article is insightful. NLP models such as BERT certainly fit my need by scanning the whole ...
0
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0answers
17 views

What is the motivation behind NAS Bench 201 research?

I recently read the "paper NAS-Bench-201: Extending the Scope of Reproducible Neural Architecture Search", which can be found here. I can say that I understood most of the paper but I am not ...
1
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1answer
25 views

Why do terms in the computation of state space size scale exponentially?

The image below is from a Berkeley AI course pdf I found. My question is, why do the terms accounting for the ghosts and pellets come in raised to the number of units? For example, there are two ...
1
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1answer
26 views

Does reinforcement learning lend itself well to changes in the environment due to external factors?

I've been reading about reinforcement learning, and it seems to me that reinforcement learning assumes the environment is static, and therefore that the reward for taking a particular action will be ...
0
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0answers
20 views

How to colorize images with Variational Autoencoder?

CONTEXT I'm trying to colorize images with Variational Autoencoder. Input is 256x256 gray image. Output is 256x256x2 as I convert image to a LAB color space and then put gray channel as input and ...
0
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1answer
42 views

Is a Transformer a good choice for multivariate signal classification?

I am working on a problem regarding the multi-classification of multivariate time signals. So I have multiple signals and try to train an algorithm on them. My current approach is to build a neural ...
0
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0answers
21 views

How to build/train a recommendation system model with no user related data

I have a set of items with their attributes. I want to use this data to train a an open-source model that uses users-items interactions as positive preferences data. Would it be a good idea to ...
1
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0answers
29 views

Are RNN a good approach to solve this type of problem?

I have a problem that can be optimized by taking five actions, and finally, after a series of steps to achieve a solution. The actions (1 to 5) are picked randomly. A time-step (epoch) is concluded ...
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0answers
11 views

How to reduce the variance of stochastic policy gradient for continuous actions in a partially observable environment?

I am trying to implement a stochastic policy gradient for continuous actions in a partially observable CartPole environment. Specifically, only the current cart position and pole angle are visible, ...
1
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1answer
29 views

How to output an integer/discrete number n with a single output neuron?

Say I have a game with 4 base actions [left, right, up, down] and then a value n, which determines how many times the chosen action is repeated. For example, action = left, n = 3 -> go left 3 times....
2
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1answer
33 views

How does a bounding box detection network "know" about absolute position?

I've always found bounding box regression a bit weird. There's no positional encoding like in vision transformers, so how does the network "know" the absolute position when producing ...
0
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2answers
56 views

Are there any works that deal with 2D pose estimation in videos?

Since pose estimation is often a task where spatial-temporal context should be helpful in finding subsequent key points, I thought there should be many papers on it. However, I could not find any work ...
0
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0answers
22 views

Minimizing hard and soft margin objective functions in a one dimensional SVM

Given a one-dimensional training dataset with 3 points, 2 negative points at -1 and 1, and a positive point at 0 (as in the picture above): (a) What solution would minimize the linear Hard Margin SVM ...
1
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1answer
44 views

Is logic AI a complement to learning AI?

I want to know the relation between logic AI and learning AI. Logic AI here refers to the branch of AI that is based on mathematical logic. Learning AI refers to the branch of AI that is based on ...
1
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1answer
40 views

Does reaching the global optima guarantee good performance in a task?

It is to my understanding that, in deep learning, we are essentially trying to minimize the loss function that we have defined and reach its global optima through some form of optimization technique. ...
0
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1answer
47 views

Which data representation of text as input for NLP Deep Learning models?

I have been given a data set with 30.000 text documents (each text file is rather small with respect to its length and consists in most cases of around 20 sentences), which are labelled with 0 or 1. ...
0
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0answers
12 views

Does it make sense to get best Kth-fold CV test result from an epoch where train result is bad?

I have been looking for some explanation that could convince me over the right way of thinking about CV. My challenge is related to the automation of the model configuration process due to same kind ...
0
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0answers
12 views

Nearest-Neighbour recommendation distance ranking where some recommendations occur more than once

A nearest neighbour recommendation engine may, given a query vector identify the ranked top-K nearest vectors within a dataset using a distance measure such as cosine similarity. In my problem domain, ...
0
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0answers
43 views

Python libraries for solving reinforcement learning problems implemented in OpenAI gym [closed]

I have implemented a reinforcement problem with Open AI gym in Python and I would like to solve it using different algorithms like Deep-Q-Learning and SARSA (any maybe others). My question is which ...
-1
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1answer
45 views

Equations for computing true positives and false positives when using object detection algorithms?

I am running some evaluation metrics using the YOLOv5 object detection algorithm, and wish to calculate my true positives and false positives. For instance, the evaluation metric outputs are as ...
1
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0answers
23 views

Transforming Moving Position Data to an Inputvector for Neural Networks

Imagine a car is driving on a long street (= x-axis). The car can go in both directions and it will arbitrarily change its direction. I'm trying to formulate an Inputvector to tell a neural Network ...
0
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0answers
32 views

How to pass the rewards in zero-sum multiplayer context when using REINFORCE?

Suppose there are two players in my zero-sum game and they play in a row like chess. And I want to learn the policy function using the REINFORCE algorithm. I have doubts about passing reward values in ...
0
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1answer
26 views

How can I adapt a trained neural network model to learn from newer data containing additional features?

We shall assume that we have a trained neural network model for some task $A$. The dataset used to train the model contained some $n$ features per sample. Using this dataset, we were able to train a ...
-1
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0answers
34 views

How to normalize the IMU timestep dataset?

I have a timestep dataset of IMU data that I need to normalize. I learned about commonly used methods, but I don't know what I choose. I have a dataset with shape (batch_size, timesteps, features) ... ...
-2
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1answer
42 views

My accuracy wont improve in tensorflow [closed]

I've been trying to figure out why this model won't train (the accuracy stays at 0). ...
2
votes
1answer
70 views

What are the base rules for the symbolic integration implementation?

I want to implement a full symbolic integration. To achieve this. I've learned from Prof. Patrick Winston's AI lecture that Matlab uses 12 safe transformations, like that constant out, sums, etc. 12 ...
0
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0answers
30 views

Limit of momentum update equation

I am self-studying on optimization algorithm on https://d2l.ai/chapter_optimization/momentum.html and couldn't get my head around some derivation: Instead of the standard gradient descent update ...
-1
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0answers
35 views

Deep learning and machine learning [duplicate]

If I was Given a set of large training examples (xi,yi), how can training a neural network (NN) via stochastic gradient descent differs from using regular gradient descent in terms of the mathematical ...
1
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0answers
32 views

Which machine learning algorithm can be used to identify patterns in a large file of numbers?

I'm new to machine learning and have many questions, but today I want to know if my case can be solved by machine learning, and if the answer is yes, I would like to know what to learn first and which ...
1
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1answer
46 views

Is it the high probability action that is always selected by the agent in REINFORCE algorithm?

Consider the following algorithm from the textbook titled Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction (second edition) by Richard S. Sutton and Andrew G. Bart While playing the game for the generation of ...
-1
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0answers
26 views

How to represent billions of time series data? [closed]

I have a time series (e.g., temperature data) from 1st January 2003 to 31st December 2017 with a one-second sampling rate, which indicates there are about $24 \times 3,600 \times 365 \times15= 473,040,...
2
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0answers
45 views

What determines when Dropout, BatchNorm & other Regularization will be effective?

I just had a very strange experience where I was training an 8 layer deep & pretty wide (max: 512 neurons) neural network for a regression task. I had assumed since it was big enough that it would ...
2
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0answers
41 views

In Policy Gradient methods, why are actions always chosen from a Gaussian in the literature?

In Sutton's 2020 Reinforcement Learning text (in chapter 13.7 Policy Parameterization for Continuous Actions) it's stated actions [may be] chosen from a normal (Gaussian) distribution. However, I ...
0
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1answer
30 views

Does "number of actions" refer to the number of actions taken or size of the action space?

In the original DDQN article (https://arxiv.org/pdf/1509.06461.pdf,) the phrase "number of actions" is used twice; First, in the following context: Secondly in Theorem 1. I have a hard ...
1
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0answers
20 views

How to compute the loss for a sequence labeling task without the Softmax distribution?

For a sequence labeling task (NER), we compute the loss by passing the softmax distribution of the classes (e.g. vocabulary) with the gold label to the loss function (...
2
votes
2answers
165 views

Is the optimal policy the one with the highest accumulative reward (Q-Learning vs SARSA)?

I was looking at the following diagram, The reward obtained with SARSA is higher. However, the path that Q learning chooses is eventually the optimal one, isn't it? Why is the SARSA reward higher if ...
0
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2answers
32 views

Given embedding vector A and vector B, how to find top k embedding vectors such that they are similar to vector A and dissimilar to vector B

Which would be better approach for getting top k embedding vectors such that they are similar to embedding vector A and dissimilar to vector B. Approach 1: calculate ...
0
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0answers
18 views

How to force/instruct CNN to learn specific features?

Let's say I have a CNN that classifies shirts. And let's say that it performs poorly on shirts that have horizontal stripes. How would I force network to put more emphasis on shirts with horizontal ...
0
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0answers
13 views

Is it possible that k-means generates a cluster with no points in it, if the initial centroid is not properly set and no of cluster is large?

Is it possible that sklearn's k-means algorithm will generate a cluster that has no points at all, given that the number of k is large and the initial centroid is just random? Furthermore, will k-...
0
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1answer
29 views

What is the difference between Mean Teacher and Knowledge Distillation?

I recently read two papers: BYOL Bootstrap your own latent: A new approach to self-supervised Learning DINO Emerging Properties in Self-Supervised Vision Transformers. I am confused about the terms ...
0
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1answer
22 views

What is meant by "lateral connection" in the context of neural networks?

A class of CNN is popular due to the implementation of residual connections. We can use both terms "residual connections" and "skip connections" interchangeably as they refer to ...
0
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0answers
30 views

How Does The DDQN Step/interact In The Environment?

I have made a (D)DQN Model. In this model, regardless of whether I initialize it in DDQN or DQN mode, it uses an experience replay memory. The way I gather transitions for this experience replay ...
1
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2answers
265 views

Are these book example CNN results realistic?

I've been following a deep learning book and the current section I'm on is about convolutional neural networks. The author presents some code to create a basic CNN with about 1 million parameters, ...
0
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1answer
48 views

Why is old/off-policy data harmful to on-policy/online RL? [closed]

I ask because if RL is indeed an MDP, then there should be absolutely no problem with training an agent on any available episode roll-out data, right? Because an MDP implies for any state S, the ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

Can CNNs detect image similarity?

I have been running some experiments to see whether a CNN can detect whether two images are the same. However, I can't seem to make it work. I am wondering whether CNNs are not able to do what I am ...
0
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1answer
29 views

Are there any other language models besides GPT-3 that can be used to create chatbots with a specific identity and environment?

I've recently been looking into language models but ran into a small question out of curiosity. For some language models like GPT-3, it is possible to generate dialogue, with the model basing its ...

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