60

How could self-driving cars make ethical decisions about who to kill? It shouldn't. Self-driving cars are not moral agents. Cars fail in predictable ways. Horses fail in predictable ways. the car is heading toward a crowd of 10 people crossing the road, so it cannot stop in time, but it can avoid killing 10 people by hitting the wall (killing the ...


51

The answer to a lot of those questions depends on how the device is programmed. A computer capable of driving around and recognizing where the road goes is likely to have the ability to visually distinguish a human from an animal, whether that be based on outline, image, or size. With sufficiently sharp image recognition, it might be able to count the number ...


28

Personally, I think this might be an overhyped issue. Trolley problems only occur when the situation is optimized to prevent "3rd options". A car has brakes, does it not? "But what if the brakes don't work?" Well, then the car is not allowed to drive at all. Even in regular traffic, human operators are taught that your speed should be limited as such that ...


14

This is the well known Trolley Problem. As Ben N said, people disagree on the right course of action for trolley problem scenarios, but it should be noted that with self-driving cars, reliability is so high that these scenarios are really unlikely. So, not much effort will be put into the problems you are describing, at least in the short term.


13

In the real world, decisions will be made based on the law, and as noted over on Law.SE, the law generally favors inaction over action.


10

One of the main arguments for self-driving cars is that presumably they'll get better and better at driving as the technology progresses, they have no temporal attention deficits or aggressive urges or drug habits and sense their environment 360°, all the while communicating with the other cars, which all together basically amounts to LESS DEAD PEOPLE. We ...


9

Google’s self-driving car most likely uses mapping of traffic signs using google street view images for roadway inventory management. If traffic signs are not in its database, it can still “see” and detect moving objects which can be distinguished from the presence of certain stationary objects, like traffic lights. So its software can classify objects based ...


8

For a driverless car that is designed by a single entity, the best way for it to make decisions about whom to kill is by estimating and minimizing the probable liability. It doesn't need to absolutely correctly identify all the potential victims in the area to have a defense for its decision, only to identify them as well as a human could be expected to. ...


8

“This moral question of whom to save: 99 percent of our engineering work is to prevent these situations from happening at all.” —Christoph von Hugo, Mercedes-Benz This quote is from an article titled Self-Driving Mercedes-Benzes Will Prioritize Occupant Safety over Pedestrians published OCTOBER 7, 2016 BY MICHAEL TAYLOR, retrieved 08 Nov 2016. Here's ...


7

There are multiple motivations for self driving cars. Self driving cars have the potential to be much safer. Self driving cars are far more reliable than humans and can learn and have their software improved and upgraded, resulting in safer roads and far fewer accidents. More on self-driving car safety: http://bigthink.com/ideafeed/googles-self-...


5

Frankly I think this issue (the Trolley Problem) is inherently overcomplicated, since the real world solution is likely to be pretty straightforward. Like a human driver, an AI driver will be programmed to act at all times in a generically ethical way, always choosing the course of action that does no harm, or the least harm possible. If an AI driver ...


5

They shouldn't. People should. People cannot put the responsibilities of ethical decisions into the hands of computers. It is our responsibility as computer scientists/AI experts to program decisions for computers to make. Will human casualties still exist from this? Of course, they will--- people are not perfect and neither are programs. There is an ...


5

How could self-driving cars make ethical decisions about who to kill? By managing legal liability and consumer safety. A car that offers the consumer safety is going to be a car that is bought by said consumers. Companies do not want to be liable for killing their customers nor do they want to sell a product that gets the user in legal predicaments. Legal ...


5

Automation Levels Most cars have some Level 1 automation, such as cruise control and various skid/flip probability reduction systems. Most high volume passenger vehicles have higher levels. Some military and private air, land, and sea equipment are already at Level 5. Level 4 requires that driving be automated during normal driving conditions, with manual ...


4

It will not be single DNN architecture, rather it will be a collection of different DNN architectures that are used together to make the final decision. Convolutions are using the images/videos from the camera. Other architectures use other sensory sources. These DNNs will be trained to compute the high-level features from their sensory sources and then ...


4

I think that in most cases the car would default to reducing speed as a main option, rather than steering toward or away from a specific choice. As others have mentioned, having settings related to ethics is just a bad idea. What happens if two cars that are programmed with opposite ethical settings and are about to collide? The cars could potentially have a ...


4

There is a neat definition of artificial intelligence, which circumvents the problem of defining "intelligence" and which I would ascribe to McCarthy, the founder of the field, although I can only find it now in this book by H. Simon: "… having to do with finding ways to do intelligent tasks, to do tasks which, if they were done by human beings, would call ...


4

Tesla's technology is assistive, as Alexey points out, so this is not a case of an autonomous system (e.g. an AGI) doing some fatal stunt (the product name AutoPilot is famously misleading). Now on why the car assistance led to this tragic accident, there is some information related to AI technologies. Warning: I cannot find again the source critical to the ...


4

You're going to need some way to 'see' the area around the car, and to track the speed of nearby objects. Google uses a combination of LIDAR, radar, conventional cameras, and occasionally sonar (see here for a high-level overview). This technology is quite expensive, and can easily cost thousands of US dollars. However, a bigger obstacle than the expense ...


4

Why are self-driving cars awesome? Safety: better awareness (due to more sensors), better reaction time, fewer distracted/injured/drunk/texting drivers on the road, etc Convenience: pick up my kids from school, park itself at the grocery store, take itself to be serviced, etc Faster transit: with increased safety, you can increase speed limits, with proper ...


4

https://www.technologyreview.com/s/530276/hidden-obstacles-for-googles-self-driving-cars/ Google’s cars can detect and respond to stop signs that aren't on its map, a feature that was introduced to deal with temporary signs used at construction sites. But in a complex situation like at an unmapped four-way stop the car might fall back to slow, extra ...


4

What aspects of AI would be most applicable to creating a self learning game AI for a racing game (Q-Learning, NEAT etc) In general, you are looking at a problem that involves sequential decision making, in a machine learning context. If you are wanting to build an agent that can learn by receiving screen images, then NEAT cannot scale to that complexity ...


3

It likely to be happen, because it's more convenient that way. In general people, organizations and government are always keen to make things more efficient by standarizing things (computers, technology, law, science, etc.) in order to make it manageable and predictable to reduce the time and minimalize the risk of the same mistakes. The whole world now ...


3

The AI of the car uses sensor data to process all the data and classifies objects based on the size, shape and movement patterns. It can recognize surroundings from a 360 degree perspective by making predictions about vehicles, people and objects around it will move. It can detect pedestrians, but as moving, column-shaped blurs of pixels, so it really ...


3

As far as I know, Tesla cars autopilot is not a 100% AI pilot, it's an assitant: as it detects hands off wheel it slows down, so it's incorrect to speak about AI mistake: it is not trained/designed to drive a car all by itself. A human driver is responsible in that incident.


3

I think there would not be a way to edit such ethics settings in a car. But hey, if cell phones can be rooted, why not cars? I imagine there'll be Linux builds in the future for specific models that will let you do whatever you want. As for who'll make such decisions, it'll be much like privacy issues of today. There'll be a tug-of war on the blanket by the ...


3

The only sensible choice is to use predictable behaviour. So in the people in front of the car scenario: First the car hits the brakes, at the same time honks the horn, and stays on course. The people then have a chance to jump out of the way leading to zero people being killed. Also with full brakes (going from 50km per hour to zero is less than 3 car ...


3

What you are calling 'analyzing the surroundings' is generally referred to as perception. Self-driving cars sense their surroundings using cameras, radars, lidars often combining or fusing more than one sensor to paint a picture of the environment. A lot of algorithms get used for fusing the sensor data and then deriving an understanding of the surrounding. ...


3

If they are able to network, then they can notify the car behind that it is about to break. In this way they can drive closer together at high speeds. As soon as one puts on the breaks, all the cars behind would apply the breaks. They would not require the 2 seconds that it takes for a human to respond. Children could be dropped at school or the train ...


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