It all depends on your architecture.
What a chatbot is made of?
Most of the current commercial AI chatbots have an architecture somehow like this:
│ │ │ │ │ ...
While it is certainly possible to have NLP algorithms ending up in infinite loops, chatbots will typically not be affected by this.
A first-year pitfall you learn is in the construction of grammars. If you do a top-down analysis of a sentence, the following grammar rule will send it into an infinite loop:
NP -> NP of NP | det N | N
This allows a noun ...
The deeplearning.ai Natural Language Processing Specialization, is a great place to start. It'll brush up some basic concepts of NLP and then get into SOTA methods such as Transformers. There's even a project in one of the courses about building a chatbot using transformers, it also has a ton of papers and other sources mentioned.
Rasa is a great software ...