# Tag Info

## Hot answers tagged convolution

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3D CNN's are used when you want to extract features in 3 Dimensions or establish a relationship between 3 dimensions. Essentially its the same as 2D convolutions but the kernel movement is now 3-Dimensional causing a better capture of dependencies within the 3 dimensions and a difference in output dimensions post convolution. The kernel on convolution ...

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Short answer Theoretically, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can either perform the cross-correlation or convolution: it does not really matter whether they perform the cross-correlation or convolution because the kernels are learnable, so they can adapt to the cross-correlation or convolution given the data, although, in the typical diagrams, CNNs are ...

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3D convolutions should when you want to extract spatial features from your input on three dimensions. For Computer Vision, they are typically used on volumetric images, which are 3D. Some examples are classifying 3D rendered images and medical image segmentation

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For a 3 channel image (RGB), each filter in a convolutional layer computes a feature map which is essentially a single channel image. Typically, 2D convolutional filters are used for multichannel images. This can be a single filter applied to each layer or a seperate filter per layer. These filters are looking for features which are independent of the color,...

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You are partially correct. On CNNs the output shape per layer is defined by the amount of filters used, and the application of the filters (dilation, stride, padding, etc.). CNNs shapes In your example, your input is 30 x 30 x 3. Assuming stride of 1, no padding, and no dilation on the filter, you will get a spatial shape equal to your input, that is ...

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About the images inside the CNN layers: I really recommend this article since there is no one short answer to this question and it probably will be better to experiment with it. About the RGB input images: When needed to train on RGB pictures it is not advised to split the RGB channels, you can think of it by trying to identify a fictional cat with red ears,...

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What are the parameters in a convolutional layer? The (learnable) parameters of a convolutional layer are the elements of the kernels (or filters) and biases (if you decide to have them). There are 1d, 2d and 3d convolutions. The most common are 2d convolutions, which are the ones people usually refer to, so I will mainly focus on this case. 2d ...

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No, nothing really prevents the weights from being different. In practice though they end up almost always different because it makes the model more expressive (i.e. more powerful), so gradient descent learns to do that. If a model has $n$ features, but 2 of them are the same, then the model effectively has $n-1$ features, which is a less expressive model ...

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Am I right in thinking that because there are only newImageX * newImageY patterns in the 32 x 32 image, that the maximum amount of filters should be newImageX * newImageY, and any more would be redundant? Your assumption is wrong. If you have a $32 \times 32$ images (so consider only grayscale images), then you have $256^{32 \times 32}$ possible patterns (i....

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Usually, you need to ensure that your convolutions are causal, meaning that there is no information leakage from the future into the past. You could start by looking at this paper, which compares Temporal Convolutional Networks (TCN) with vanilla RNNs models.

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The reason why you go from 16 to 3 channels is that, in a 2d convolution, filters span the entire depth of the input. Therefore, your filters would actually be $7 \times 7 \times 16$ in order to cover all channels of the input. Detailed procedure The output of the convolution automatically has a depth equal to the number of filters (so in your case this is $... 3 To show how the convolution (in the context of CNNs) can be viewed as matrix-vector multiplication, let's suppose that we want to apply a$3 \times 3$kernel to a$4 \times 4$input, with no padding and with unit stride. Here's an illustration of this convolutional layer (where, in blue, we have the input, in dark blue, the kernel, and, in green, the feature ... 3 I have had similar thoughts about neural networks before. Convolution layers are layers of two dimensional nodes effectively passing the spacial data so why don't we use two dimensional hidden layers to receive information out of them. I'm sure someone has used this type of implementation before. I believe the papers bellow are using this. Part of the ... 3 I'm going to post another guess to this question - it won't be a complete answer, but hopefully it'll provide some direction towards finding a more legitimate answer. The feed-forward networks as suggested by Vaswani are very reminiscent of the sparse autoencoders. Where the input / output dimensions are much greater than the hidden input dimension. If you ... 3 I haven't seen it as you describe and I don't think it would be much useful. Pooling layers are being gradually phased out of networks, because they don't seem to be that useful anymore. With the emergence of more and more conv-only architectures, I don't see that likely. 3 For a standard convolution layer, the weight matrix will have a shape of (out_channels, in_channels, kernel_sizes*) in addition you will need a vector of shape [out_channels] for biases. For your specific case, 2d, your weight matrix will have a shape of (out_channels, in_channels, kernel_size[0], kernel_size[1]). Now if we plugin the numbers: out_channels =... 3 I don't think that to understand convolution you need to dig into the nested code of huge libraries, since the code becomes quickly really hard to understand and convoluted (ba dum tsss!). Joking apart, in PyTorch Conv2d is a layer that applies another low level function, conv2d, written in c++. Luckily enough, the guys from PyTorch wrote the general idea ... 3 The point is that in the expansive path you have two forms of information: the information from the contracting path, which includes all high-level features extracted from the original image. the information from the skip-connections, which copy a cropped version of the feature maps in the contracting path. Because, as we go forward through the expansive ... 3 What happens to the size of output feature map in case of full convolution? It increases. First one is valid padding: the blue square is not padded, so the green square is smaller. Third one is same padding: the blue square is padded just enough so that the green square is the same size. Fourth one is full padding: the blue square is padded as much as ... 2 If you have a$h_i \times w_i \times d_i$input, where$h_i, w_i$and$d_i$respectively refer to the height, width and depth of the input, then we usually apply$mh_k \times w_k \times d_i$kernels (or filters) to this input (with the appropriate stride and padding), where$m$is usually a hyper-parameter. So, after the application of$m$kernels, you ... 2 They are not the same thing. asymmetric convolutions work by taking the x and y axes of the image separately. For example performing a convolution with an$(n \times 1)$kernel before one with a$(1 \times n)$kernel. On the other-hand depth-wise separable convolutions separate the spatial and channel components of a 2D convolution. It will first ... 2 1) The math is the exact same, so from an optimization or mathematical perspective there is no difference 2) Here are my guesses to a possible answer. Habit: People may just call one over the other out of habit Generality: Across frameworks a 1d convolution op would work, while Dense of FC may need adjustments to work on the temporal axis Parallel ... 2 In most modern neural network frameworks, the update rules for training can be selectively applied to some parameters and not others. How to do that is dependent on the framework. Some will have the concept of "freezing" a layer, preventing parameters in it being updated. Keras does this for example. Others will do the opposite and expect you to provide a ... 2 You can use CNN for time-series data. The Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network (RCNN) is one of the examples. Convolutional layers basically extract features from images. It is not related to time-series data processing. Some CNNs (such as in ResNet, Highway Networks, and DenseNet) use some recurrent concepts to improve their prediction, but they all are ... 2 Read on Fully Convolutional Networks (FCN). There is a lot of papers on the subject, first was "Fully Convolutional Networks for Semantic Segmentation" by Long. The idea is quite close to what you describe - preserve spatial locality in the layers. In FCN there is no fully connected layer. Instead there is average pooling on top of last low-resolution/high-... 2 Short answer is no. You can't use a model trained for one task to predict on a totally different task. Even if the second task was another image classification task, the CNN would have to be fine tuned for the new data to work. A couple of things to note... 1) CNNs are good for images due to their nature. It isn't necessary that they'd be good for any 2-... 2 Yes this looks a lot like overfitting. The clue is in the low and slowly decreasing training loss compared to the large increases in validation loss. One simple fix would be to stop training around epoch 50, taking the best cross validation result to select the most general network at that point. However, anything that works to improve stable generalisation ... 2 You can also think of a convolutional neural network (CNN) as an encoder, i.e. a neural network that learns a smaller representation of the input, which then acts as the feature vector (input) to a fully connected network (or another neural network). In fact, there are CNNs that can be thought of as auto-encoders (i.e. an encoder followed by a decoder): for ... 2 Mathematically, the convolution is an operation that takes two functions,$f$and$g$, and produces a third function,$h\$. Concisely, we can denote the convolution operation as follows $$f \circledast g = h$$ In the context of computer vision and, in particular, image processing, the convolution is widely used to apply a so-called kernel (aka filter) to an ...

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