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A stochastic process has the Markov property if the probability distribution of future states conditioned on both the present and past states depends only on the present state or, more formally, the following equality holds. $$ p(s_{t+1} \mid s_{t}, s_{t-1:1}) = p(s_{t+1} \mid s_{t}), \forall t $$ The hidden Markov model (HMM) is an example of a model ...


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In the abstract of chapter 14 (Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence: A Challenge for Power System Engineers) of the book Advanced Solutions in Power Systems: HVDC, FACTS, and Artificial Intelligence: HVDC, FACTS, and Artificial Intelligence the authors say AI is concerned with decision‐making capabilities such as knowledge representation,...


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What is Bayesian optimization? Introduction Bayesian optimization (BO) is an optimization technique used to model an unknown (usually continuous) function $f: \mathbb{R}^d \rightarrow Y$, where typically $d \leq 20$, so it can be used to solve regression and classification problems, where you want to find an approximation of $f$. In this sense, BO is ...


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A surrogate model is a simplified model. It is a mapping $y_S=f_S(x)$ that approximates the original model $y=f(x)$, in a given domain, reasonably well. Source: Engineering Design via Surrogate Modelling: A Practical Guide In the context of Bayesian optimization, one wants to optimize a function $y=f(x)$ which is expensive (very time consuming) to evaluate, ...


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This is Direct Answer to Your Question:-- The matter is controversial, with some established parameters as what constitutes life. An example of an established parameter for being alive is having: cells or reproduction. It is unclear whether A.I. can create a copy of itself that is independent of its parent. Arguably, partial satisfaction of the ...


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Mind the hardware: While there are different definitions of what life (synonymously used with 'organism' here (source: Wikipedia: Life) is, e.g. All types of organisms are capable of reproduction, growth and development, maintenance, and some degree of response to stimuli. (Source: Wikipedia: Organism) they all have one thing in common: they require ...


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Here is a paper with the mathematical definition of each term: Let Nt,n,σ,L be all target functions that can be implemented using a neural network of depth t, size n, activation function σ, and when we restrict the input weights of each neuron to be |w|1 + |b| ≤ L.


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My sense is that, yes, AI (and algorithms in general) constitute a form of "life" in that they are animate, able to respond to stimuli and act on an environment. Algorithms may be deterministic (always produce the same output for identical input), and this is not much different from more elementary forms of life (like proteins.) Computer viruses are ...


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A definition of life The property or quality that distinguishes living organisms from dead organisms and inanimate matter, manifested in functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and response to stimuli or adaptation to the environment originating from within the organism. The characteristic state or condition of a living organism. Here'...


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