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16

Remembering that artificial intelligence has been an academic endeavour for the longest time, Prolog was amongst one of the early languages used as part of the study and implementation of it. It has rarely made its way into large commercial applications, having said that, a famous commercial implementation is in Watson, where prolog is used for NLP. The ...


13

Yes, as mentioned in other answers, Prolog is actually used in IBM Watson. Prolog doesn't get much "hype" and "buzz" these days, but it is absolutely still used. As always, it has certain specific areas where it shines, and specific techniques that map well to its use. Specifically, things like Inductive Logic Programming, Constraint Logic Programming, ...


13

John McCarthy (1927 - 2011) was an American computer scientist. A pioneer in the foundations of artificial intelligence research, he coined the term "artificial intelligence". He was one of the creators of the (original) Lisp programming language, which was quite involved in early AI research in the 1960s and 1970s. He coined the term in 1955, and organized ...


11

The earliest research into thinking machines was inspired by a confluence of ideas that became prevalent in the late 30s, 40s and early 50s (e.g. formal logic, automata, robots). Although the Turing test was proposed in the 1950s by Alan Turing, the work culminated back in the 1940s in the invention of the programmable digital computers, an abstract essence ...


11

tl;dr I always like to think of Neural Networks as a generalization of logistic regression. I too don't like that, traditionally, when introducing Neural Networks, books start with biological neurons and synapses, etc. I think its more beneficial to start from statistics and linear regression, then logistic regression and then neural networks. A ...


10

Overall, the answer is no, but the current paradigms owe a lot to LISP. The language most commonly used today is python. Relevant answers: Stack Overflow thread explaining why LISP was thought of as the AI language: Why is Lisp used for AI Quora answer by Peter Norvig, who wrote a popular textbook on the subject and is currently Director of Research at ...


8

There does not appear to be a historical consensus on this. The Wikipedia page on the Perceptrons book (which does not come down on either side) gives an argument that the ability of MLPs to compute any Boolean function was widely known at the time (at the very least to McCulloch and Pitts). However, this page gives an account by someone present at the MIT ...


8

Yes, although how useful this AI can be is another question entirely. mpgac is a "minimally intelligent AGI" trained on the GAC-80K corpus of MIST questions. As a result, it should be able to "minimally" pass this test. However, being trained on the GAC-80K corpus obviously make it lacking for any practical purposes. From the README: Obviously this ...


8

I think it might come down to whether the transistor is making a decision. If the transistor is being used as a switch, that would seem to qualify as a decision, even though it's an extremely rudimentary decision. Intelligence, in reference to Artificial (or Algorithmic) Intelligence, is not restricted to high intelligence. A brute force Tic-Tac-Toe AI ...


7

Not all games (or even board games) are computationally algorithmic. Even the least skilled player is likely to trounce the hottest pattern-matching algorithm in a game of Pictionary (for example). If you want to say that the movement of pieces upon successful completion of a task is only ancelary to the object of the game, than your answer will be largely ...


6

I definitely continue to often use Lisp when working on AI models. You asked if it is being used for substantial work. That's too subjective for me to answer regarding my own work, but I queried one my AI models whether or not it considered itself substantial, and it replied with an affirmative response. Of course, it's response is naturally biased as ...


6

No. TL;DR: The Lovelace Test 2.0 is very vague, making it ill-suited for evaluation of intelligence. It is also generally ignored by researchers of Computational Creativity, who already have their own tests to evaluate creativity. Longer Answer: According to Google Scholar, there are 10 references to the "Lovelace Test 2.0" paper. All of those references ...


6

Any logic circuit admits a variety of implementations. All programs executing on conventional digital processors can be expressed as logic circuits. Among the possible implementations of logic circuits are fluidic implementations, which do not depend on electronics per se. Thus it is in principle possible to implement, e.g. a POMDP processor (responsive ...


6

Not yet. Synthetic virology / Synthetic life are still in their infancy. We can now synthesize simple bacteria (see Craig Venter's fascinating TED talk and also an article about his recent work) but definitely nothing that may be called 'rational' in human standards.


6

Replacing my previous ill conceived answer with this definition of Intelligence from Richard Sutton (a founder and leader Reinforcement Learning) should answer your question. John McCarthy long ago gave one of the best definitions: "Intelligence is the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world”. That is pretty straightforward ...


6

Looking at what happened, it was something similar. Though, the case differs in my eyes from one perspective: if it could only do a few comedy jokes, that probably is not a profound starting point to excel in Twitter. Firstly, Twitter is about real life, not about comedy. Discussions are sometimes tough and you easily end up to Social Media Bubbles, where ...


6

It was essentially a lack of control over crowd-sourced training data. While Tay was initially set up with some conversational ability, it seemed to be programmed to learn from interactions with other users. Once users became aware of this, they basically gamed the bot by exposing it to inappropriate language, which Tay's algorithms then picked up and ...


6

Why is it called back-propagation? I don't think there is anything special here! It's called back-propagation (BP) because, after the forward pass, you compute the partial derivative of the loss function with respect to the parameters of the network, which, in the usual diagrams of a neural network, are placed before the output of the network (i.e. to the ...


5

AI is a rather unusual research field in that the label persists more because it represents a highly desired goal, rather than (as with most other fields) the means, substrate or methodology by which that goal is achieved. we still talk of AI as a unified, coherent field of study Despite recent efforts in AGI, I don't think that AI is actually a very ...


5

For many years, the focus has been on games with perfect information. That is, in Chess and Go both of us are looking at the same board. In something like Poker, you have information that I don't have and I have information that you don't have, and so for either of us to make sense of each other's actions we need to model what hidden information the other ...


5

No, I think electricity is not essential for AI. In theory AI (a sufficient collection of computational processes that can adapt to changes in their input, thus producing 'intelligent' behavior), could be implemented using any mechanism that can compute that set of essential functions needed to create AI. Basically I'm suggesting the possibility of ...


5

In 1986, the first PC therapist program was written by Joseph Weintraub. This program won the first Loebner Prize in 1991, and then again in 1992, 1993 and 1995. In 1981 or 1982, Jabberwacky was founded, which is the foundation of the current Cleverbot. Jabberwacky appeared on the internet in 1997, reaching the third place for the Loebner Prize in 2003, ...


5

LISP is still used significantly, but less and less. There is still momentum due to so many people using it in the past, who are still active in the industry or research (anecdote: the last VCR was produced by a Japanese maker in July 2016, yes). The language is however used (to my knowledge) for the kind of AI that does not leverage Machine Learning, ...


5

LISP was popular because back in the old days of AI because of the functional syntax, which worked well with the GOFAI paradigm of the time. Nowadays most researchers have given up on the classical computational theory of mind (read: language of thought), and thus also the GOFAI paradigm that it associates with. LISP is not what you want to learn if you ...


5

They would probably have followed the same sequence we do: be amazed at the capabilities, ask how it is done, wonder whether this is really intelligence and (or) point out our narrow the performance was, require more next time to be impressed again.


4

The well-known 'Eliza' program (Weizenbaum, ~1964) would appear to be the first. Eliza was designed to model the emotionally-neutral response of a psychotherapist and this masks some of the weaknesses of its limited underlying pattern-matching mechanisms.


4

What might be classed as AI has of course changed over the years, but landmarks and research breakthroughs include: Babbagge's Difference Engine (~1823) for tabulating/interpolating polynomials. Frank Rosenblatt's 1957 invention of the Perceptron. John McCarthy's invention of Lisp in the late 1950s. Arthur Samuel's 1959 checkers player, which famously ...


4

To quote the relevant Wikipedia article: "The original creators of the database keep a list of some of the methods tested on it.[5] In their original paper, they use a support vector machine to get an error rate of 0.8 percent" Feel free to look up that original paper, but to me the quote strongly suggests that the first record holder was a support vector ...


4

The 2016 finals haven't started yet, they will start on Saturday, 17 September 2016. In the 2015 finals or before that, nobody won the Gold Medal or the Silver Medal. The most up-to-date data can be found here, where we can find both the results from 2015 and the timeline of the 2016 contest.


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