9 votes

What is the difference between an agent function and an agent program?

It looks as if 'function' is being used here in the mathematical (or functional programming) sense of 'pure function', i.e. it is without state or side-effects. Hence the function cannot store ...
NietzscheanAI's user avatar
8 votes
Accepted

How to turn a ternary constraint into three binary constraints?

Let $D_a$ be the domain for A, and $a_i$ the elements of $D_a$. Let $D_b$ and $D_c$ work similarly for $B$ and $C$ respectively. We introduce $D_t = \{t | t = (c_i - b_j, c_i)\}$ for all $c_i$ in $...
jspencer's user avatar
  • 196
6 votes

What is the difference between the US and global edition of the AIMA book by Russell and Norvig?

I check again with the subchapters of Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, 4th Global ed / US ed from this website the pdf subchapters reference of Global Edition and US Edition. I can confirm ...
rubengavidia0x's user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

What does the Markov assumption say about the history of state sequences?

A stochastic process has the Markov property if the probability distribution of future states conditioned on both the present and past states depends only on the present state or, more formally, the ...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.2k
4 votes

What are some alternatives to the book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach"?

Why is AIMA dense? Artificial intelligence is a broad field: that's why Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (AIMA) may look a bit dense to newcomers, given that it covers many different aspects ...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.2k
4 votes

What are some alternatives to the book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach"?

The following 2 books helped me understand the basics and guided me through my first AI / CI implementations. Computational Intelligence: An Introduction by Andries P. Engelbrecht It includes the ...
D. S.'s user avatar
  • 81
4 votes

What is the difference between a problem representation and problem modelling?

I would say these terms are often used interchangeably in AI. When they differ, I would say that problem modeling means finding a mathematical description of the problem, while problem representation ...
John Doucette's user avatar
3 votes
Accepted

Why would the lookup table (of a table-driven artificial agent) need to store data at pixel precision?

A tabular system for agent decisions is a direct and simple map of percept to control choice. For each percept received, the agent looks up the percept and cross-references it to the action it should ...
Neil Slater's user avatar
  • 31.7k
3 votes
Accepted

A* and uniform-cost search are apparently incomplete

You forgot to calculate and take into account the costs of the actual paths. You forgot to accumulate the cost of the edges for going forward and backward multiple times! The evaluation function of ...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.2k
2 votes

Are all fully observable environments episodic?

No, not all fully observable environments are episodic. Let's take a look again at the definitions from the book: Fully Observable Environment (section 2.3.2) If an agent’s sensors give it access to ...
adamconkey's user avatar
2 votes
Accepted

When is a knowledge base consistent?

I will first recapitulate the key concepts which you need to know in order to understand the answer to your question (which will be very simple, because I will just try to clarify what is given as a &...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.2k
2 votes
Accepted

Understanding the pseudocode of uniform-cost search from the book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach"

I think this is a problem with missing brackets in pseudocode — clearly the state is only added to the frontier if it hasn't been explored already, so it would be: ...
Oliver Mason's user avatar
  • 5,397
2 votes

What is the difference between the concepts "known environment" and "deterministic environment"?

What's the difference between the two terms? Don't they mean the same thing? They mean different things, and can occur in any combination. A known, deterministic environment This is an environment ...
Neil Slater's user avatar
  • 31.7k
2 votes

Is there an error in A* optimality proof Russel-Norvig 4th edition?

You did not compute $g(n)$ correctly. A* expands according to the evaluation function $f(n) = g(n) + h(n)$, where $g(n)$ is the cost of the path from the start node to $n$. Initially, you add $A$ to ...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.2k
2 votes
Accepted

AIMA, Mutation in Genetic Algorithm

GAs are really a framework around a bunch of closely related ideas that can be tweaked in slightly different ways, and there's no good way to know what the authors intended aside from asking them or ...
deong's user avatar
  • 611
1 vote

Does Breadth-First Graph Search need to store all all unique generated states?

States are represented by nodes in the graph. In other words, a state is a node in the graph. So, I don't think there's any difference, but some authors maybe make a difference (e.g. because you don't ...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.2k
1 vote

Can A* be non-optimal if it uses an admissible but inconsistent heuristic with graph search?

TL;DR: All A* requires to find the optimal path is an admissible heuristic I'll read that section of the book for more clarity and extend this answer; though, I believe the way to interpret that ...
respectful's user avatar
  • 1,106
1 vote

Can we achieve optimality with minimax using an evaluation function?

You can take any two player zero-sum game and change its rules, so that they become: Start from the game state being evaluated. Play for up to N turns. If no winner is found after N turns, the winner ...
Neil Slater's user avatar
  • 31.7k
1 vote
Accepted

Why is $P(X_{t+1} \mid e_{1:t}, e_{t+1}) = \alpha P(e_{t+1} \mid X_{t+1}, e_{1:t}) P(X_{t+1} \mid e_{1:t})$ true in Norvig & Russell's book?

Let me denote the events with simpler symbols $A = X_{t+1}$ $C = e_{1:t} = e_1, \dots e_t$ $D = e_{t+1}$ So, we can rewrite $$ P(X_{t+1} \mid e_{1:t}, e_{t+1}) = \alpha P(e_{t+1} \mid X_{t+1}, e_{1:...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.2k
1 vote
Accepted

How does randomization avoid entering infinite loops in the vacuum cleaner problem?

how does randomization (for instance flipping a fair coin) avoid entering the infinite loop? The coin is flipped on each occasion that a decision is required (as opposed to once in order to define ...
Neil Slater's user avatar
  • 31.7k
1 vote
Accepted

Are Genetic Algorithms suitable for problems like the Knuth problem?

Before trying to answer your question more directly, let me clarify something. People often use the term genetic algorithms (GAs), but, in many cases, what they really mean is evolutionary algorithms (...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.2k
1 vote
Accepted

How DFS may expand the same state many times via different paths in an acyclic state space?

First, note that the verb to expand has a specific meaning in this context: when you expand a node/state $s$, you try each action $a_1, \dots, a_n$ available from $s$, and each of these actions $a_i$ ...
nbro's user avatar
  • 40.2k
1 vote

Why is this vacuum cleaner agent rational?

You are correct that the robot should never perceive two [A, Clean] events in a row, as it should have moved when perceiving the first one. However, this only ...
Oliver Mason's user avatar
  • 5,397
1 vote

What is the difference between the US and global edition of the AIMA book by Russell and Norvig?

The difference can be found in the following link more clearly US vs Global
Bhasha's user avatar
  • 11
1 vote

What does the statement with the max do in the recursive best-first search algorithm?

This is probably more easily understood as the collapse/restore macro. The idea is that the previously explored state was collapsed and only the minimum f-cost from the sub-tree was stored. This ...
Nathan S.'s user avatar
  • 371
1 vote

How can I solve part b of exercise 3.6 from the book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach"?

Initial state: initial position of the monkey. Possible actions climb on the crate, get down the crate, move the crate from one spot to another, stack one crate on another, walk from one spot to ...
Manish Nath Choudhary AI's user avatar

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