A relatively recent but interesting paper that discusses this topic in more detail is Reward is enough (Artificial Intelligence, 2021) by David Silver, Satinder Singh, Doina Precup, and Richard S. Sutton (so by some of the godfathers of RL, who are all at DeepMind).
Their reward-is-enough hypothesis (RIEH) (page 4) is
Hypothesis (Reward-is-Enough). ...
I would like to add "The Master Algorithm" by Pedro Domingos. I would say it's more philosophical but still provides high level discussions about differences between algorithms. He also has a sense of humor which makes it a lighter read.
The famous book Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (by Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig) covers all or most of the theoretical aspects of artificial intelligence (such as deep learning) and it also dedicates one chapter to the common philosophical topics that you mention.