# Tag Info

Accepted

### Are softmax outputs of classifiers true probabilities?

The answer is both yes, and no. Or, to put it another way, the answer depends on what exactly you mean by "represent probabilities", and there is a valid sense in which the answer is yes, ...
• 307

### Are softmax outputs of classifiers true probabilities?

Excellent question. The simple answer is no. Softmax actually produces uncalibrated probabilities. That is, they do not really represent the probability of a prediction being correct. What usually ...
• 1,345
Accepted

### Why is the equation $r(s', a, s') =\sum_{r \in \mathcal{R}} r \frac{p\left(s^{\prime}, r \mid s, a\right)}{p\left(s^{\prime} \mid s, a\right)}$true?

No, the substitution you suggest based on Equation (3.4) is not correct because you forgot about the $\sum_{r \in \mathcal{R}}$ in the right-hand side Equation (3.4). Equation (3.4) says (leaving out ...
• 10.3k
Accepted

### Why don't we also need to approximate $p(x \mid z)$ in the VAE?

What I can guess here is that, in VAEs, we assume $p(z)$ (prior), so we are able to calculate $p(x \mid z)$, but for $p(x)$ we can't assume its distribution? Is it right? You could assume $p(x)$ is ...
• 40.9k
Accepted

### How is the formula for the Bayes error rate with an integral derived?

Bayes Error Rate For the general case of K different classes, the probability of classifing x instance correctly is: \label{eq1} \begin{split} P(correct) & = \sum_{i=1}^{K} p(x \...
• 919

### How do compute the table for $p(s',r|s,a)$ (exercise 3.5 in Sutton & Barto's book)?

The function $r(s,a,s')$ gives the expected reward in each scenario, but not the distribution of rewards that lead to values $r_{search}$ and $r_{wait}$ The text explains that reward is $+1$ for ...
• 32.7k

### How do compute the table for $p(s',r|s,a)$ (exercise 3.5 in Sutton & Barto's book)?

At first, like Neil Slater says, I thought this could only be solved using the expected rewards instead of actual rewards, or else there wasn't enough information to solve it. But now I think there ...
• 171
In the book you mentioned, the author is dealing with classification, that is, inferring the label $y$ from a sample $x$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be the corresponding random variables. $p(y|x)$ can be ...