5

It means that $z$ has a (multivariate) normal distribution with 0 mean and identity covariance matrix. This essentially means each individual element of the vector $z$ has a standard normal distribution.


3

I am using the convention of uppercase $X$ for random variable and lowercase $x$ for an individual observation. It is possible your source material did not do this, which might be causing your confusion. However, it is the convention used in Sutton & Barto's Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction. What I didn't understand what is 𝑋 here. i.e., what is ...


2

From the stanford CNN class (http://cs231n.github.io/neural-networks-2/): Blockquote Initializing the biases. It is possible and common to initialize the biases to be zero, since the asymmetry breaking is provided by the small random numbers in the weights. For ReLU non-linearities, some people like to use small constant value such as 0.01 for all ...


2

Learning is possible without random thoughts and actions. Knowledge can be encapsulated in predetermined forms and passed through predetermined knowledge transfer mechanisms. Much of civilization is based on these predeterminations. Without them, humanity would be thrown back possibly 120,000 years. However, initial discovery requires trials and review of ...


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