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Although there are several definitions of "robot", an essential feature of everything called "robot" is that it is capable of movement. This does not necessarily mean displacement; a robot arm in a factory also moves. There is a single exception to this rule, which is bot-programs like chatbots; I will discuss them later. Artificial Intelligence does not ...


7

The most challenging part is this section of the first law: or through inaction allow a human being to be harmed Humans manage to injure themselves unintentionally in all kinds of ways all the time. A robot strictly following that law would have to spend all its time saving people from their own clumsiness and would probably never get any useful work ...


6

Defining "harm" and in particular, "allowing harm via inaction" in any meaningful way would be difficult. For example, should robots spend all their time flying around attempting to prevent humans from inhaling passive smoke or petrol fumes? In addition, the interpretation of 'conflict' (in either rule 2 or 3) is completely open-ended. Resolving such ...


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In the broadest sense, the difference is that non-robotic A(G)I may not be possible because, as per this question, it could be that "Intelligence requires a body". More specifically, it could be that there are limitations to what the traditional (well, 1950s style) 'Brain in a vat' notion of an AI is capable of comprehending, in the absence of experience of ...


4

Can a brain be intelligent without a body? No. Don't forget that the main function of the brain is to provide homeostasis between the body and the environment. Without the body, the utility of the brain is no longer relevant. Alternatively, why consider intelligence only in the brain? How far does our body extend? Embodied cognitive science asks us to ...


3

This paper might provide some answers https://arxiv.org/pdf/1810.05762.pdf For the observations / states they used not only angles, but also velocities, heights and positions (Table 2). In 4.2 Learning algorithm you can see that they mention this, which is related to your question about normalization: Additionally, for stability we whiten the current ...


3

In a general sense you can say that robot is a piece of hardware, while AI is software (sometimes hardware too). Wikipedia states Robot as a machine which performs complex set of tasks automatically. Machine - A mechanical device basically. So, technically you can create a robot that doesn't require any kind of complex algorithms to take decisions. A ...


3

Just to add some discourse; this is actually an incredibly complex task, as gestures (aka kinematics) function as an auxiliary language that can completely change the meaning of a sentence or even a single word. I recently did a dissertation on the converse (generating the correct gesture from a specific social context & linguistic cues). The factors ...


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Meaning of Low Level Goals in Data-Efficient Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning * * Ofir Nachum, Shixiang Gu, Honglak Lee, Sergey Levine Before explaining why a move or a push are goals, let's examine a statement from a prior paper. Although Sergy Levine (Berkeley) is well published and a respected contributor, we can see why Ofir Nachum (Google) is ...


2

The Mars Rover is a highly successful example of the 'New AI' that emerged from work by Rodney Brooks in the 1990s. In a quote from Brooks: In 1984 I joined the faculty at MIT where I have been ever since. I set up a mobile robot group there and started developing robots that led to the Mars planetary rovers. Together with the 'Allen' paper, the ...


2

The NASA Space Robotics Challenge (SRC) is a virtual challenge with 1 million USD prize money. University teams like MIT Locomotion Group and the Institute of Human Machine Cognition Robotics Lab (IHMC) can participate to prepare humanoid robots for a journey to Mars. The tasks for the “Valkyrie R5” robot are similar to the Darpa Robotics challenge, that ...


2

It depends what you mean by intelligence. A robot that acts has a different sort of intelligence than a neural net that merely maps inputs to outputs. Bit patterns within a robot brain have meaning, whereas the meaning of the inputs and outputs of gain meaning only through the larger system in which humans steer input data to it, and act on the basis of the ...


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Sophia ,first , has all the questions and corresponding answers preprogrammed. It is a system which is a hybrid of Bayes Text classification and decision trees. It may consist of a speak recognizer which converts the question into a string. This string then travels into a algorithm which gets a suitable answer for it. The answer is then spoken by the ...


1

Welcome to AI.SE @EdouardLopez! Because Boston Dynamics is a private, for profit, company, we cannot know for sure how they achieve their results. However, we can examine the available public information and make educated guesses. In the information posted with the video, Boston Dynamics tells us that they use ... an optimization algorithm transforms ...


1

The rotation matrix $R_k(\theta)$ associated with a given unit-length vector $k$ and angle $\theta$ is given by the following formula $$\small{R_k(\theta) = \begin{bmatrix} \cos \theta +k_x^2 \left(1-\cos \theta\right) & k_x k_y \left(1-\cos \theta\right) - k_z \sin \theta & k_x k_z \left(1-\cos \theta\right) + k_y \sin \theta \\ k_y k_x \left(1-\...


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To be precise, a discrete Fourier transform can be used to transform a finite set of samples between frequency and time domains. A continuous Fourier transform can be applied in calculus to an expression or a set of equations (through the appropriate techniques) or used to develop algorithms, but digital systems are not continuous, so there is no way to ...


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The filtering (or convolution) process in Convolutional Neural Networks can be implemented using Fourier Transforms. Convolutions in image (or spatial) space are equivalent to multiplications in frequency space, and multiplications can be performed much more efficiently than convolutions. The algorithm for using Fourier Transforms to calculate a convolution ...


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It depends a lot on the hardware of your robot arm. Assuming that your servos have encoder information, if you have access to servos that have limited control like "rotate left/rotate right" functionality, you can phrase the your action space to be ["move left", "stop", "move right"]. In this way you can implement a discrete action space with 3 actions per ...


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The pick&place problem can be solved with a domain-specific language which runs in a robot-simulator. Words like “pick”, “moveto”, “release”, “gripperdown”, “gripperup”, “followpath”, “detectobject”, “selectobject” and “detectobstacle”, have to defined first, and then the primitives are ordered in a high-level-routine. For testing out the general ...


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The ability of thinking rationally has not been developed by any AI. It requires high level of intelligence like humans, somewhat like a AGI.


1

In reference to the title question - if you define being intellegent as ‘doing the right thing at the right time’ then the statement itself implies some sort of embodied context. Whether humanoid, networked or otherwise. If you have a more existential definition where by fact that there are internal workings, or goings on but aren’t apparent in any ...


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Absolutely if you give it the right inputs. The brain is like a machine and its behaviour depends on its architecture and the interaction with the environment, wether it is the internet or anything else, so it all boils down to the actual architecture of the system So this is my expansion (someone suggested it): Intelligence is just an information ...


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You are right, that pseudocode is not correct. In particular, the definition of $H_t^i$ in line $11$ should be changed; all the way on the right-hand side, it should have $3N - 3j$ columns of $0$s, rather than $3j$ columns of $0$s. With that change, every matrix $H_t^i$ will have the same number of columns: $$6 + 3j - 3 + 3N - 3j = 3 + 3N,$$ which ...


1

There is some research on this topic. See, for example, the papers Robot Identification and Localization with Pointing Gestures (2018) and Proximity Human-Robot Interaction Using Pointing Gestures and a Wrist-mounted IMU (2019), by Boris Gromov et al., where the human is assumed to possess an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached to the arm


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In the context of IT systems, "Robotic Process Automation" (RPA) is a term often used to describe a technique where software systems are integrated or work processes are automated through the existing user interface of the applications rather than writing new software to provide integration points. In that context, RPA has nothing to do with AI or machine ...


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Yes, rpa is AI. In particular, applied AI. The definition of rpa in wiki is: Robotic process automation (or RPA) is an emerging form of clerical process automation technology based on the notion of software robots or artificial intelligence (AI) workers. Moreover, look at this characteristics of rpa: The paradigm, in summary, is that a software ...


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The future of robotics Companies like Google are doing restless research in robotics whereby machine learning algorithms are applied to empower self driving cars well equipped with computer vision, etc. The future is so exciting in that it will be an era where artificially intelligence machines can rewrite their own source code and constantly improve upon ...


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I think that this may be too difficult for only a few weeks of work. There are a few reasons why and although all of the reasons are themselves learning opportunities, it may cost you more time than you have. First off, Robots are hard to work with. Ask anyone who has worked with robots and they will say that have broken their heart at least once. This is ...


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An agent perceives the environment through sensors and act according to the incoming percepts (agent's perceptual input at any instant). An autonomous vacuum cleaner can be as simple as (blocki, clean) --> Move to blocki+1 (blocki, dirty) --> Clean This is just a general description, actual one is more complicated. Or the bot can have a memory where it ...


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Simply we say AI is software and robot is its body. This is because the algorithms we commonly think of AI come in the form of software, where when we talk about robots, we're talking about physical automation. In an automobile manufacturing process where automation is used, the software makes the decisions on what physical action the robot arm should ...


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