60 votes

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and machine learning?

Machine learning has been defined by many people in multiple (often similar) ways [1, 2]. One definition says that machine learning (ML) is the field of study that gives computers the ability to learn ...
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  • 810
51 votes
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What is fuzzy logic?

As complexity rises, precise statements lose meaning and meaningful statements lose precision. ( Lofti Zadeh ). Fuzzy logic deals with reasoning that is approximate rather than fixed and exact. This ...
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39 votes

What is the difference between a convolutional neural network and a regular neural network?

TLDR: The convolutional-neural-network is a subclass of neural-networks which have at least one convolution layer. They are great for capturing local information (e.g. neighbor pixels in an image or ...
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36 votes
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What is the difference between strong-AI and weak-AI?

The terms strong and weak don't actually refer to processing, or optimization power, or any interpretation leading to "strong AI" being stronger than "weak AI". It holds conveniently in practice, but ...
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  • 536
32 votes
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How is a deep neural network different from other neural networks?

The difference is mostly in the number of layers. For a long time, it was believed that "1-2 hidden layers are enough for most tasks" and it was impractical to use more than that, because training ...
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32 votes
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What are "bottlenecks" in neural networks?

The bottleneck in a neural network is just a layer with fewer neurons than the layer below or above it. Having such a layer encourages the network to compress feature representations (of salient ...
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31 votes

How can an AI train itself if no one is telling it if its answer is correct or wrong?

By "company A has a large human face database so that it can train its facial recognition program more efficiently" the article probably means that there is a training dataset $S$ of the form $$ S = ...
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26 votes
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What is the Bellman operator in reinforcement learning?

The notation I'll be using is from two different lectures by David Silver and is also informed by these slides. The expected Bellman equation is $$v_\pi(s) = \sum_{a\in \cal{A}} \pi(a|s) \left(\cal{R}...
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24 votes

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and machine learning?

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence. Roughly speaking, it corresponds to its learning side. There is no "official" definitions, boundaries are a bit fuzzy.
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22 votes

What is fuzzy logic?

Fuzzy logic is based on regular boolean logic. Boolean logic means you are working with truth values of either true or false (or 1 or 0 if you prefer). Fuzzy logic is the same apart from you can have ...
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17 votes

What is the difference between an observation and a state in reinforcement learning?

Sometimes observation and state overlap completely, which is convenient. However, there is no reason to expect it in all cases, and that's where interesting problems occur. Reinforcement learning ...
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17 votes
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What is the difference between actor-critic and advantage actor-critic?

Actor-Critic is not just a single algorithm, it should be viewed as a "family" of related techniques. They're all techniques based on the policy gradient theorem, which train some form of critic that ...
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16 votes

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and machine learning?

Artificial intelligence According to the book Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (section 1.1), artificial intelligence (AI) has been defined in multiple ways, which can be organized into 4 ...
16 votes

What is the difference between a convolutional neural network and a regular neural network?

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are neural networks with architectural constraints to reduce computational complexity and ensure translational invariance (the network interprets input patterns ...
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15 votes
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What is "backprop"?

"Backprop" is the same as "backpropagation": it's just a shorter way to say it. It is sometimes abbreviated as "BP".
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15 votes
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What is the difference between latent and embedding spaces?

Embedding vs Latent Space Due to Machine Learning's recent and rapid renaissance, and the fact that it draws from many distinct areas of mathematics, statistics, and computer science, it often has a ...
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13 votes

Who first coined the term Artificial Intelligence?

John McCarthy (1927 - 2011) was an American computer scientist. A pioneer in the foundations of artificial intelligence research, he coined the term "artificial intelligence". He was one of the ...
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  • 758
12 votes

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and machine learning?

The machine learning is a sub-set of artificial intelligence which is only a small part of its potential. It's a specific way to implement AI largely focused on statistical/probabilistic techniques ...
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12 votes
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What is a deep neural network?

A deep neural network (DNN) is nothing but a neural network which has multiple layers, where multiple can be subjective. IMHO, any network which has 6 or 7 or more layers is considered deep. So, the ...
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12 votes
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What algorithms are considered reinforcement learning algorithms?

The dynamic programming algorithms (like policy iteration and value iteration) are often presented in the context of reinforcement learning (in particular, in the book Reinforcement Learning: An ...
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12 votes
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What is the difference between active learning and online learning?

Active learning (AL) is a weakly supervised learning (WSL) technique where you can have both labelled and unlabelled data [1]. The main idea behind AL is that the learner (or learning algorithm) can ...
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11 votes
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What is a "trajectory" in reinforcement learning?

In answer that you linked, I may have used an informal definition of "trajectory", but essentially the same thing as the quote. A "trajectory" is the sequence of what has happened (in terms of state, ...
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10 votes

What is the difference between artificial intelligence and machine learning?

Machine learning is a subfield of artificial intelligence, as the following diagram (taken from this blog post) illustrates.
10 votes

How is a deep neural network different from other neural networks?

A deep neural network is just a (feed-forward) neural network with many layers. However, deep belief networks, Deep Boltzmann networks, etc., are not considered (debatable) deep neural networks, as ...
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  • 1,341
10 votes

What are bottleneck features?

In the blog post Building powerful image classification models using very little data, bottleneck features are mentioned. What are the bottleneck features? It's clearly written in the link you gave ...
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10 votes

What are "bottlenecks" in neural networks?

Imagine, you want to re-compute the last layer of a pre-trained model : Input->[Freezed-Layers]->[Last-Layer-To-Re-Compute]->Output To train [Last-...
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  • 101
10 votes

What is the purpose of an activation function in neural networks?

If you only had linear layers in a neural network, all the layers would essentially collapse to one linear layer, and, therefore, a "deep" neural network architecture effectively wouldn't be deep ...
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10 votes

What is the definition of "soft label" and "hard label"?

According to Galstyan and Cohen (2007), a hard label is a label assigned to a member of a class where membership is binary: either the element in question is a member of the class (has the label), or ...
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