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Machine learning has been defined by many people in different ways. One definition says that machine learning (ML) is the field of study that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed. Given the above definition, we might say that machine learning is geared towards problems for which we have (lots of) data (experience), from ...


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As complexity rises, precise statements lose meaning and meaningful statements lose precision. ( Lofti Zadeh ). Fuzzy logic deals with reasoning that is approximate rather than fixed and exact. This may make the reasoning more meaningful for a human: Fuzzy logic is an extension of Boolean logic by Lotfi Zadeh in 1965 based on the mathematical theory of ...


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The terms strong and weak don't actually refer to processing, or optimization power, or any interpretation leading to "strong AI" being stronger than "weak AI". It holds conveniently in practice, but the terms come from elsewhere. In 1980, John Searle coined the following statements: AI hypothesis, strong form: an AI system can think and have a mind (in the ...


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TLDR: The convolutional-neural-network is a subclass of neural-networks which have at least one convolution layer. They are great for capturing local information (e.g. neighbor pixels in an image or surrounding words in a text) as well as reducing the complexity of the model (faster training, needs fewer samples, reduces the chance of overfitting). See ...


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By "company A has a large human face database so that it can train its facial recognition program more efficiently" the article probably means that there is a training dataset $S$ of the form $$ S = \{ (\mathbf{x}_1, y_1), \dots,(\mathbf{x}_N, y_N) \} $$ where $\mathbf{x}_i$ is an image of the face of the $i$th human and $y_i$ (which is often called a ...


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The difference is mostly in the number of layers. For a long time, it was believed that "1-2 hidden layers are enough for most tasks" and it was impractical to use more than that, because training neural networks can be very computationally demanding. Nowadays, computers are capable of much more, so people have started to use networks with more layers and ...


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The bottleneck in a neural network is just a layer with less neurons then the layer below or above it. Having such a layer encourages the network to compress feature representations to best fit in the available space, in order to get the best loss during training. In a CNN (such as Google's Inception network), bottleneck layers are added to reduce the ...


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Fuzzy logic is based on regular boolean logic. Boolean logic means you are working with truth values of either true or false (or 1 or 0 if you prefer). Fuzzy logic is the same apart from you can have truth values which are in-between true and false, that is to say you are working with any number between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (inclusive). The fact that you can ...


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Almost all of the functionalities provided by the non-linear activation functions are given by other answers. Let me sum them up: First, what does non-linearity mean? It means something (a function in this case) which is not linear with respect to a given variable/variables i.e. $f(c1.x1 + c2.x2...cn.xn + b) != c1.f(x1) + c2.f(x2) ... cn.f(xn) + f(b).$ NOTE:...


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Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence. Roughly speaking, it corresponds to its learning side. There is no "official" definitions, boundaries are a bit fuzzy.


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Definitions of Artificial Intelligence can be categorized into four categories, Thinking Humanly, Thinking Rationally, Acting Humanly and Acting Rationally. The following picture (from Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach) will shed light on over these definitions: The definition which I like is by John McCarthy, "It is the science and engineering ...


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The notation I'll be using is from two different lectures by David Silver and is also informed by these slides. The expected Bellman equation is $$v_\pi(s) = \sum_{a\in \cal{A}} \pi(a|s) \left(\cal{R}_s^a + \gamma\sum_{s' \in \cal{S}} \cal{P}_{ss'}^a v_\pi(s')\right) \tag 1$$ If we let $$\cal{P}_{ss'}^\pi = \sum\limits_{a \in \cal{A}} \pi(a|s)\cal{P}_{ss'}^a ...


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Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are neural networks with architectural constraints to reduce computational complexity and ensure translational invariance (the network interprets input patterns the same regardless of translation— in terms of image recognition: a banana is a banana regardless of where it is in the image). Convolutional Neural Networks ...


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"Backprop" is the same as "backpropagation": it's just a shorter way to say it. It is sometimes abbreviated as "BP".


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John McCarthy (1927 - 2011) was an American computer scientist. A pioneer in the foundations of artificial intelligence research, he coined the term "artificial intelligence". He was one of the creators of the (original) Lisp programming language, which was quite involved in early AI research in the 1960s and 1970s. He coined the term in 1955, and organized ...


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The machine learning is a sub-set of artificial intelligence which is only a small part of its potential. It's a specific way to implement AI largely focused on statistical/probabilistic techniques and evolutionary techniques.Q Artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence is 'the theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally ...


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A deep neural network (DNN) is nothing but a neural network which has multiple layers, where multiple can be subjective. IMHO, any network which has 6 or 7 or more layers is considered deep. So, the above would form a very basic definition of a deep network.


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Actor-Critic is not just a single algorithm, it should be viewed as a "family" of related techniques. They're all techniques based on the policy gradient theorem, which train some form of critic that computes some form of value estimate to plug into the update rule as a lower-variance replacement for the returns at the end of an episode. They all perform "...


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Active learning (AL) is a weakly supervised learning (WSL) technique where you can have both labelled and unlabelled data [1]. The main idea behind AL is that the learner (or learning algorithm) can query an "oracle" (e.g. a human) to label some unlabelled instances. AL is similar to semi-supervised learning (SSL), which is also a WSL technique, ...


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Many terms have 'mostly' the same meanings, and so the differences are just in emphasis, perspective, or historical descent. People disagree as to which label refers to the superset or the subset; there are people who will call AI a branch of ML and people who will call ML a branch of AI. I typically hear Machine Learning used as a form of 'applied ...


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In the blog post Building powerful image classification models using very little data, bottleneck features are mentioned. What are the bottleneck features? It's clearly written in the link you gave the "bottleneck features" from the VGG16 model: the last activation maps before the fully-connected layers. Do they change with the architecture that is used? ...


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Sometimes observation and state overlap completely, which is convenient. However, there is no reason to expect it in all cases, and that's where interesting problems occur. Reinforcement learning theory is based on Markov Decision Processes. This leads to a formal definition of state. Most importantly, the state must have the Markov property. Which means ...


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How is Artificial Intelligence different from Machine Learning https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/how-artificial-intelligence-different-from-machine-learning-singh


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A deep neural network is just a (feed-forward) neural network with many layers. However, deep belief networks, Deep Boltzmann networks, etc., are not considered (debatable) deep neural networks, as their topology is different (i.e. they have undirected networks in their topology). See also this: https://stats.stackexchange.com/a/59854/84191.


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Although there are several definitions of "robot", an essential feature of everything called "robot" is that it is capable of movement. This does not necessarily mean displacement; a robot arm in a factory also moves. There is a single exception to this rule, which is bot-programs like chatbots; I will discuss them later. Artificial Intelligence does not ...


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In a traditional neural network, the network's vertices are neurons and the output of a single neuron is a single value (a "scalar"). This number is called its activation. A layer of neurons in the network outputs a vector of activations. We should not confuse this with the activity vectors in a Capsule Network. Capsule Networks are different since ...


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Imagine, you want to re-compute the last layer of a pre-trained model : Input->[Freezed-Layers]->[Last-Layer-To-Re-Compute]->Output To train [Last-Layer-To-Re-Compute], you need to evaluate outputs of [Freezed-Layers] multiple times for a given input data. In order to save time, you can compute these ouputs only once. Input#1->[Freezed-Layers]...


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In English, the fringe is (also) defined as the outer, marginal, or extreme part of an area, group, or sphere of activity. In the context of AI search algorithms, the state (or search) space is usually represented as a graph, where nodes are states and the edges are the connections (or actions) between the corresponding states. If you're performing a tree (...


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In answer that you linked, I may have used an informal definition of "trajectory", but essentially the same thing as the quote. A "trajectory" is the sequence of what has happened (in terms of state, action, reward) over a set of contiguous timestamps, from a single episode, or a single part of a continuous problem. So $(s_3, a_3, r_4, s_4, a_4, r_5, s_5, ...


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In contrast to the philosophical definitions, which rely on terms like "mind" and "think," there are also definitions that hinge on observables. That is, a Strong AI is an AI that understands itself well enough to self-improve. Even if it is philosophically not equivalent to a human, or unable to perform all cognitive tasks that a human can, this AI can ...


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