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36

The terms strong and weak don't actually refer to processing, or optimization power, or any interpretation leading to "strong AI" being stronger than "weak AI". It holds conveniently in practice, but the terms come from elsewhere. In 1980, John Searle coined the following statements: AI hypothesis, strong form: an AI system can think and have a mind (in the ...


19

Siri and Cortana are AI to some extent. The usual label is "weak AI" (also called "narrow" or "soft" AI). It turns out the Wikipedia article on Weak AI explicitly refers to Siri: Siri is a good example of narrow intelligence. Siri operates within a limited pre-defined range, there is no genuine intelligence, no self-awareness, ...


16

The rhetorical point of the Turing Test is that it places the 'test' for 'humanity' in observable outcomes, instead of in internal components. If you would behave the same in interacting with an AI as you would with a person, how could you know the difference between them? But that doesn't mean it's reliable, because intelligence has many different ...


11

With AI technology at its current stage (or at least reasonably close to this stage), the jobs you proposed may very well be openings created by AI automation. However, sufficiently advanced AI technology--- the kind that can function as general purpose labor replacement--- will make even these jobs obsolete. This is because such an AI would be able to ...


10

In my opinion, this would be Phaeaco, which was developed by Harry Foundalis at Douglas Hofstadter's CRCC research group. It takes noisy photographic images of Bongard problems as input and (using a variant of Hofstadter's 'Fluid Concepts' architecture) successfully deduces the required rule in many cases. Hofstadter has described the related success of ...


10

The problem of the Turing Test is that it tests the machines ability to resemble humans. Not necessarily every form of AI has to resemble humans. This makes the Turing Test less reliable. However, it is still useful since it is an actual test. It is also noteworthy that there is a prize for passing or coming closest to passing the Turing Test, the Loebner ...


9

There are at least two questions in your question: What are some of the methods used to program the successful go playing program? and Are those methods considered to be artificial intelligence? The first question is deep and technical, the second broad and philosophical. The methods have been described in: Mastering the Game of Go with Deep Neural ...


8

I would classify both as having / using elements of AI, yes. But I wouldn't say either represents a truly "intelligent" (in the AGI sense) program. But here's the rub... as you'll see in other questions asking about definitions of AI, there's a sort of memetic thing where anything that AI begins to do successfully, immediately stops being considered "AI". ...


8

In contrast to the philosophical definitions, which rely on terms like "mind" and "think," there are also definitions that hinge on observables. That is, a Strong AI is an AI that understands itself well enough to self-improve. Even if it is philosophically not equivalent to a human, or unable to perform all cognitive tasks that a human can, this AI can ...


7

The classical Turing Test certainly does have limitations. Because I don't see it mentioned here yet, I'll suggest you read about The Chinese Room, which is one of the most commonly cited reasons why the Turing Test indeed falls short of ascertaining true 'consciousness'. However, I'd also note that Turing himself, in the original paper that proposed the ...


6

It doesn't make much sense to have a single threshold with "unintelligent" below it and "intelligent" above it. I think it makes more sense to have a gradation of intelligence by cognitive task. Inverting a matrix is a 'cognitive task,' and one where working memory pays off immensely; computers have been much better at that cognitive task than humans for a ...


6

The cleanest result we have on this issue is the "no free lunch" theorem. Basically, in order to make a system perform better at a specific task, you have to degrade its performance on other tasks, and so there is a flexibility-efficiency tradeoff. But to the broader question, or whether or not your thinking is correct, I think it pays to look more closely ...


5

As Matthew Graves explained in another answer No free lunch theorem confirms the flexibility - efficiency trade-off. However, this theorem is describing a situation where you have a set of completely independent tasks. This often doesn't hold, as many different problems are equivalent in their core or at least have some overlap. Then you can do something ...


4

In addition to the answers already posted, I think IBM's Watson deserves a mention. It did something pretty impressive with its Jeopardy win, possibly as impressive as AlphaGo. Sadly, since then, there don't seem to have been a lot of really public demos of Watson, as IBM is positioning the technology as a tool for companies and other organizations, and ...


4

There is a neat definition of artificial intelligence, which circumvents the problem of defining "intelligence" and which I would ascribe to McCarthy, the founder of the field, although I can only find it now in this book by H. Simon: "… having to do with finding ways to do intelligent tasks, to do tasks which, if they were done by human beings, would call ...


4

AI production overseers - People who will command AI to build and control mines and factories. It's like a strategic game, but in the real world. Explanation: AI even with the intellect of a bee and ability to understand/execute commands in combination with appropriate technologies will be enough to create robots, which will be able to build mines and ...


4

AI Gatekeepers Their job would be to make sure they (AI) don't accidentally become our overlords. AI Tax Each robot that replaces a human worker is taxed. This line of thought was influenced by Bill Gates's recommendation on adding taxes for robots and an article on universal basic income. If the gold rush for AI puts many of us out of work (which is quite ...


4

I believe you are referring to something that Arend Hintze wrote about in his article "Understanding the four types of AI, from reactive robots to self-aware beings". Here are the four types from his article: Type I AI: Reactive machines The most basic types of AI systems are purely reactive, and have the ability neither to form memories nor to use past ...


4

There are many definitions of Artificial Intelligence out in the wild. All these definitions are part of one (or more) of the areas. There are four main domains, and the picture below will shed some light over this. Turing Test revolves around the left side of the cardinality, which is mostly concerned with how humans think or act. But, we know that this is ...


3

Now that this milestone has been reached, does that represent a significant advance in artificial intelligence techniques or was it just a matter of ever more processing power being applied to the problem? Neither, really. It is a milestone and a significant advance in computers beating humans in games, but the techniques used are only relevant to that game,...


3

It depends on how the test is given. For example, when people claimed that a machine had successfully passed the Turing Test a few years ago, the criteria was pretty weak. It only had to fool 30% of the people for 5 minutes. That's not much of a test. To put this in perspective you probably wouldn't detect schizophrenia, autism, learning disabilities, or ...


2

Is the Turing Test, or any of its variants, a reliable test of artificial intelligence? Myopia Yes, if one defines the term Artificial Intelligence in terms of Alan Turing's Imitation Game or one of its variants. The approach may be, at the same time, both valid and very limited as a definition of intelligence as people interpreted the word before AI ...


2

We've had many discussions on what constitutes Artificial Intelligence, and my takeaway has been that decision-making is the core requirement of AI, regardless of the optimality of that decision. In this conception, Nimatron (1939, US2215544A) might be thought of as the first proper AI, pending verification of a a fabled Babbage Tic-Tac-Toe machine. ...


2

Short Answer, No. Explained, Siri and Cortana are just inference engines. Though how applaudable their ability to synthesize text from speech and parse lexical maps from the text using Machine Learning Techniques is, the artifact is still just a program, trained with substantial myriad of Q/A tuples, that generates an output given an input. Statistically ...


2

They are virtual artificial agents which exhibit intelligent behavior (AI). Tim Urban on Wait But Why website wrote the following: The software and data behind Siri is AI, the woman’s voice we hear is a personification of that AI, and there’s no robot involved at all. Source: The AI Revolution: The Road to Superintelligence Related: What is the ...


2

AI Diplomat This may be a bit far-fetched. Let's say, in the next few centuries, the AI becomes advanced enough to earn their own civil rights through the supreme court or legislative branch. We should have experts with the good relationship with AIs. We should give them enough knowledge and tools to make sure AIs see our existence as beneficial to them. AI ...


2

AlphaGo is the most sophisticated Artificial Intelligence program created by humans. It is a computer program that is developed by Google DeepMind to play the board game "Go". The game is different than other games, as The number of potential legal board positions is greater than the number of atoms in the universe. It has way more legal board ...


1

Other answers tell about sets of instructions for the car in certain situations, or a goal seeking machine, while in fact, self-driving cars don't have a specific set of instructions. Most self-driving cars use deep learning to figure out what to do at certain events. We don't tell them what to do. They learn what to do by example. The neural networks used ...


1

It would appear so. One example, albeit not specifically AI related, is seen in the difference between digital computers and analog computers. Pretty much everything we think of as a "computer" today is a digital computer with a von Neumann architecture. And that's because the things are so general purpose that they can be easily programmed to do, ...


1

Many publications from the middle of the twentieth century prove the questioner's statement that it was a widely held belief during that period that AI would quickly become conscious, self-aware, and smart. Great Success Many tasks and forms of expertise once the exclusive domain of human intelligence, after the development of the Von Neumann general ...


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