# What does it mean when a model “statistically outperforms” another?

I was reading this paper where they are stating the following:

We also use the T-Test to test the significance of GMAN in 1 hour ahead prediction compared to Graph WaveNet. The p-value is less than 0.01, which demonstrates that GMAN statistically outperforms Graph WaveNet.

What does "Model A statistically outperforms B" mean in this context? And how should the p-value threshold be selected?

• You should read about hypothesis testing, null hypothesis, and p-values. These are basic statistical concepts. Maybe Khan Academy is a good place to start. The value of $p$ is typically a hyper-parameter and needs to be chosen before the experiment. To understand why, you should first understand the meaning of the p-value, which actually takes a little bit of time to grasp. – nbro Jul 3 at 22:58