I tried searching a lot, but I could neither find the paper that introduced Q-Learning nor the paper that introduced Deep Q Learning. If anyone knows anything about it please do tell me.

  • $\begingroup$ It's very strange that you didn't find the papers that introduced Q-learning and DQN. You just needed to type "Deep Q-learning paper" on Google to find it immediately as the first returned search result. $\endgroup$
    – nbro
    Jul 13, 2021 at 11:01
  • $\begingroup$ Yes, I agree it is strange. I didn't find the original Q learning or DQN paper at all. I found a few papers introducing modifications/applications to these algorithms but not the absolute original one. $\endgroup$ Jul 14, 2021 at 9:45

1 Answer 1


This is the original Q-Learning paper by Watkins, though you may need to pay for access to this.

This is the Nature paper that introduced the DQN.


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