Note to the Duplicate Police
This question is not a duplicate of the Q&A thread referenced in the close request. The only text even remotely related in that other thread is the brief mention of climate change in the Q and two sentences in the sole answer: "Identify deforestation and the rate at which it's happening using computer vision and help in fighting back based on how critical the rate is. The World Resources Institute had entered into a partnership with Orbital Insight on this."
If you look at the four bullet items below, you will find that this question asks a very specific thing about the relationship between climate and emissions. Neither that question nor that answer overlaps with the content of this question in any meaningful way. For instance, it is well known that CO2 is NOT causing deforestation. The additional carbon dioxide in the atmosphere causes faster regrowth. This is because plants need CO2 to grow. Hydroponic containers deliberately boost it to improve growth rates. Plants manufacture their own oxygen from the CO2 via chlorophyll.
If you recall from fifth grade biology, that's why they are plants.
Now Back to the Question
Several climate models have been proposed and used to model the relationship between human carbon emissions, added to the natural carbon emissions of life forms on earth, and features of climate that could damage the biosphere.
Population growth and industrialization have many impacts on the biosphere, including loss of terrain and pollution. Negative oceanic effects, including unpredictable changes in plankton and cyanobacteria are under study. Carbon emissions from combustion has received attention in recent decades just as sulfur emissions were central to concerns a century or more ago.
Predicting weather and climate is certainly difficult because it is complex and chaotic, as typical inaccuracies in forecasts clearly demonstrate, but that is looking forward. Looking backward, analyses of data already collected have shown a high probability that ocean and surface temperature rises followed increases in industrial and transportation related combustion of fuels.
How might AI be used to produce some of the key models humans need to protect the biosphere from severe damage.
A more reliable analysis of what has already occurred, since there is some legitimacy to the differing views as to how gross the effect of carbon emissions has been on extinctions of species in the biosphere and on arctic and antarctic melting
A better understanding as to whether the climate of the biosphere behaves as a buffer of climate, always tending to re-balance after a volcanic eruption, meteor stroke, or other event, or whether the runaway scenario described by some climatologist, where there is a point of no return, is realistic
A better model to use in trying out scenarios so that solutions can be applied in the order that makes sense from both environmental and economic perspectives
Automation of climate planning so that the harmful effects of the irresponsibility of one geopolitical entity wishing to industrialize without constraint on other geopolitical entities can be mitigated
Can pattern recognition, feature extraction, the learned functionality of deep networks, or generative techniques be used to accomplish these things? Can rules of climate be learned? Are there discrete or graph based tools that should be used?