Questions tagged [multi-agent-systems]

For questions related to multi-agent systems (MAS), which are systems that involve multiple agents (each of them can have different skills) that cooperate with each other and interact with the environment. There are several challenges faced by MAS, including coordination between agents, security, and task allocation. Multi-agent systems have been applied in areas such as computer science, civil engineering, and electrical engineering.

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How to implement a rule-based decision maker for an agent-based model?

I had no idea that there is a stack exchange community for A.I. :-/ So I repost this question here in hope of some guidelines. I tried to delve into the materials discussed in AI: A Modern Approach ...
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RLLib - What exactly do the avail_action and action_embed_size represent? How do they work with the action_mask to phase out invalid actions?

So, I'm fairly new to reinforcement learning and I needed some help/explanations as to what the action_mask and avail_action fields alongside the action_embed_size actually mean in RLlib (the ...
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16 views

Multi-agent policy gradient, 1 total reward instead of reward in each step, 2 changing action space

I am new in reinforcement learning and not sure I have the right understanding of multi-agent policy gradient. 1, in my question, each agent has its own action space. When doing the sampling, for each ...
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37 views

RLlib's Multi-agent PPO continuous actions turn into nan

After some amount of training on a custom Multi-agent sparse-reward environment using RLlib's (1.4.0) PPO network, I found that my continuous actions turn into nan (explodes?) which is probably caused ...
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Policy Gradient ( Advantage actor-critic) for multiple simultaneous continuous actions

i'm trying to solve a problem in which i need to carry out reinforcement learning with multiple simultaneous actions in continuous action space . i checked the multiagent structure; however, im trying ...
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33 views

Why is the number of examined nodes $ O(b^{3d/4})$ in $\alpha$-$\beta$ pruning?

I'm taking a course 'Introduction to AI' and, in one of the tutorials, it was written that when pruning the game tree using $\alpha$-$\beta$ boundaries, the number of nodes that will be developed, ...
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2answers
113 views

Why does Alpha Zero's Neural Network flip the board to be oriented towards the current player?

While reading the AlphaZero paper in preparation to code my own RL algorithm to play Chess decently well, I saw that the "The board is oriented to the perspective of the current player." I ...
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1answer
138 views

How does the Alpha Zero's move encoding work?

I am a beginner in AI. I'm trying to train a multi-agent RL algorithm to play chess. One issue that I ran into was representing the action space (legal moves/or honestly just moves in general) ...
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How would I design a finite budget, cascaded multi agent deep reinforcement learning model?

In most of the multi-agent reinforcement learning models I've found, it seems to generate the observations for each of the agents simultaneously and then uses a centralized critic to assess all of the ...
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31 views

Control Strategy for Multi-Agent Systems

I am working on a smart grid system which can be modeled with multiple agents interacting with each other. The agents are physically coupled with non-linearities, the action of one agent has a direct ...
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What place do Agent Communications Language have in Multi-Agent Systems nowadays?

I am currently working on implementing a Multi-Agent System for Smart Grids. There's a lot of literature for that and some things confuse me. I have read that there is FIPA, which aimed to create a ...
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Is there multi-agent reinforcement learning model in which (some of the) reward is given by other agent and not by the external environment?

The traditional setting of multiagent reinforcement learning (MARL) is the mode in which there is set of agents and external environment. And the reward is given to each agent - individually or ...
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Designing Policy-Network for Deep-RL with Large, Variable Action Space

I am attempting a project involving training an agent to play a game using deep reinforcement learning. This project has a few features that complicate the design of the neural network: The action ...
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21 views

Optimal path finding in multiagent game with collision avoidance

What algorithm to use when to find the optimal path from a starting point to the end point in a multiagent game with collision avoidance? I am in control of the agent while having zero ideas of where ...
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1answer
37 views

How to train the NN of simple agents given a reward system?

I'm not an expert in AI or NN, I gathered most of the information I have from the internet, and I'm looking for advice and guidance. I'm trying to design a NN that is going to be used by all the ...
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1answer
182 views

How to handle a changing in the Reinforcement Learning environment where there is increasing or decreasing in number of agents?

I'm working in A2C and I have an environment where there is increasing or decreasing in the number of agents. The action space in the environment will not change but the state will change when new ...
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21 views

Are my agents sharing common critic in the following Multiagent DDPG implementation?

I wanted to have a common critic for all my agents so I defined it as following but because the critic will be changing while training in every iteration, I am not sure if all agents still share the ...
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1answer
308 views

Why is tic-tac-toe considered a non-deterministic environment?

I have been reading about deterministic and stochastic environments, when I came up with an article that states that tic-tac-toe is a non-deterministic environment. But why is that? An action will ...
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1answer
110 views

Can AlphaZero considered as Multi-Agent Deep Reinforcement Learning?

Can AlphaZero considered as Multi-Agent Deep Reinforcement Learning? I could not find a clear answer on this. I would say yes it is Multi Agent Learning, as there are two Agents playing against each ...
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1answer
66 views

What is the relation between multi-agent learning and reinforcement learning?

What is the relation between multi-agent learning and reinforcement learning? Is one a sub-field of the other? For instance, would it make sense to state that your research interest are multi-agent ...
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40 views

How does heuristic work with multiple agents?

I have a question for heuristic search with multiple agents. I know how heuristic search works with one agent (ex. one Pacman) but I don't really understand it with multiple agents. Let's say we have ...
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1answer
99 views

Shouldn't the utility function of two-player zero-sum games be in the range $[-1, 1]$?

In Appendix B of MuZero, they say In two-player zero-sum games the value functions are assumed to be bounded within the $[0, 1]$ interval. I'm confused about the boundary: Shouldn't the value/...
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Are there any board game appropriate to examine the performance of multiple agents that cooperate both inter-group and intra-group?

I want to find out scenarios that useful to examine the performance of intra-group and inter-group cooperation in MARL. Specifically, I prefer a board game (like sudoku) that is suitable for the ...
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25 views

Do I need to maintain a separate population in each distributed environment when implementing PBT in a MARL context?

I have questions regarding on how to implement PBT as described in Algorithm 1 (on page 5) in the paper, Population Based Training of Neural Networks to train agents in a MARL (multi-agent ...
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1answer
41 views

Agents meeting in a directed connected graph

I've just started learning AI and I have a certain problem: We have directed connected graph, where nodes are places one can go to and edges are the "roads" between places. We have K agents whose ...
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2answers
206 views

Formal proof that every purely reactive agent has behaviorally equivalent standard agent

It kind of makes sense intuitively but I'm not sure about a formal proof. I'll start with briefly listing definitions from Intro to Multiagent systems, Wooldridge, 2002 and then give you my reasoning ...
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What are the examples of agents that is represent these characteristics?

I'm looking for examples of AI systems or agents that best represent these five characteristics (one example for each characteristics): Reactivity Proactivity Adaptability Sociability Autonomy It ...
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1answer
190 views

How would one implement a multi-agent environment with asynchronous action and rewards per agent?

In a single agent environment, the agent takes an action, then observes the next state and reward: ...
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1answer
136 views

What is the difference between multi-agent and multi-modal systems?

The Wikipedia definitions are as follows Multi-agent systems - A multi-agent system is a computerized system composed of multiple interacting intelligent agents. Multi-modal interaction - Multimodal ...
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1answer
90 views

How to represent players in a multi agent environment so each model can distinguish its own player

So I have 2 models trained with the DQN algorithm that I want to train in a multi-agent environment to see how they react with each other. The models were trained in an environment consisting of 0's ...
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0answers
93 views

Can one agent command another agent in a multi-agent reinforcement learning setting? [closed]

In reinforcement learning, an agent is usually fully autonomous and independent. It executes actions on the environment, but no other agent can control, explore or command this agent. In multi-agent ...
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91 views

How does Friend-or-Foe Q-learning intuitively work?

I read about Q-Learning and was reading about multi-agent environments. I tried to read the paper Friend-or-Foe Q-learning, but could not understand anything, except for a very vague idea. What does ...
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162 views

Multi Agent Sokoban Search Solvers state of the art

I also asked this question here but I'm repeating it on this SE because I feel it is more relevant. No intention to spam. I am researching into coding a solver for a variant of the Sokoban game with ...
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What is the best method to deal with heterogeneous multi agent system MAS?

Heterogeneity: Based on the heterogeneity of agents MAS can be divided into two categories namely: homogeneous and heterogeneous. Homogeneous MAS include agents that all have the same characteristics ...
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1answer
2k views

How to deal with the terminal state in SARSA in a multi-agent setting?

I'm training a SARSA agent to update a Q function, but I'm confused about how you handle the final state. In this case, when the game ends and there is no $S'$. For example, the agent performed an ...
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1answer
115 views

Convergence in multi-agent environment

I have a multi-agent environment where agents are trying to optimise the overall energy consumption of their group. Agents can exchange energy between themselves (actions for exchange of energy ...
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0answers
69 views

Algorithms for multiple agents problems

Can anyone recommend a reinforcement learning algorithm for a multi-agent environment? In my simplified example, I'm implementing a Q-Learning system with different 10 agents. The agents compete for ...
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1answer
84 views

Can Q-learning working in a multi agent environment where every agent learns a behaviour independently?

I am currently exploring multi-agent reinforcement learning. I have multiple agents that communicate with each other and a central service that maintains the environment state. The central service ...
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0answers
116 views

Jason/AgentSpeak trying to synchronize agents [closed]

I'm trying to implement a tree sort for 8 numbers. I've created 15 tree nodes agents and one manager agent. What I'm trying to achieve is to synchronize leaves in the tree and send their generated ...
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1answer
220 views

Agent collision avoidance java

I am working with a project which is a agent based pedestrian simulation in Java and its is animated with the help of JavaFX. I've tried to read all the social force model papers but my understanding ...
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1answer
50 views

How to choose evaluation functions for features, when network effects are in place (multi-agent systems)?

So, I have this huge amount of data, which has 7 vector features (float from 0 to 1). I am trying to build a kind of recommendation system, with a twist (it uses agents and negotiations and narratives;...
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3answers
126 views

To what extent can artificially intelligent agents reliably predict trends in financial markets?

I've gotten curious about this topic and am wondering what the stack exchange community has to say about it. Also, does anyone know of any professors/researchers who have published papers pertaining ...
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1answer
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How can I design a hierarchy of agents each of which with different goals?

I read some light material earlier about the possibility of building a hierarchy of agents, where the agents at the leaves solve primitive tasks while higher-level agents are optimized for ...
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1answer
776 views

Goal oriented Action Planning with multiple Agents

I'm a little bit stuck: I implemented an AI with GOAP (Goal oriented Action Planning, http://alumni.media.mit.edu/~jorkin/gdc2006_orkin_jeff_fear.pdf) for a simulation game. That works fine. Now I ...
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What are some examples of intelligent agents for each intelligent agent class?

There are several classes of intelligent agents, such as: simple reflex agents model-based reflex agents goal-based agents utility-based agents learning agents Each of these agents behaves slightly ...
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2answers
166 views

Would a general-purpose AI need to collaborate?

Human beings are more productive in groups than individually, possibly due to the fact that there is a limit to how much one human brain can improve itself in terms of speed of computation and areas ...
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1answer
113 views

How can thousand-robot swarm coordinate their moves without bumping into each other?

How can a swarm of small robots (like Kilobots) walking close to each other achieve collaboration without bumping into each other? For example, one study shows programmable self-assembly in a thousand-...
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Are there any decentralized examples of AI systems with blockchain technology?

Has there been any attempts to deploy AI with blockchain technology? Are there any decentralized examples of AI networks with no central point of control with AI nodes acting independently (but ...